DuPont, William Randolph Hearst, and hemp
デュポン、ウイリアム ランドルフ ハースト、とヘンプ(麻)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The decision of the United States Congress to pass the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was based on hearings,[2] reports[22] and in part on testimony derived from articles in newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, who had significant financial interests in the timber industry, which manufactured his newsprint.[23]
米議会での1937年のマリワナ税条例可決は公聴会と報告、部分的に新聞紙を製造する木材業界にかなりの投資をしていた、ウイリアム ランドルフ ハーストの経営する新聞の記事を基にして決定された。

Cannabis activist Jack Herer has researched DuPont and in his 1985 book The Emperor Wears No Clothes, Herer concluded DuPont played a large role in the criminalization of cannabis. In 1938, DuPont patented the processes for creating plastics from coal and oil and a new process for creating paper from wood pulp. If hemp would have been largely exploited, Herer believes it would have likely been used to make paper and plastic (nylon), and may have hurt DuPont’s profits. Andrew Mellon of the Mellon Bank was DuPont's chief financial backer and was also the Secretary of Treasury under the Hoover administration. Mellon appointed Harry J. Anslinger, who later became his nephew-in-law, as the head of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (FBNDD) and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN), where Anslinger stayed until 1962.[24]
カナビス アクティヴィスト(麻類活動家)ジャック ハレアーはデュポンを調べそして1985年の彼の著書The Emperor Wears No Clothes,“皇帝は服を着ていない(裸の皇帝)”でハレアーはデュポンはカナビス(麻類)の違法化に大きな役割を果たしたと結論付けた。1938年デュポンは石炭と石油からプラスチックを製造する方法と木材パルプからの製紙法の特許権を得ていた。若し麻が大々的に活用されていたら製紙やプラスチック(ナイロン)の製造に使われていてデュポンの利益を損ねる事になっていただろうとハレアーは信じている。メロン銀行のアンドリュー メロンはデュポンの主要な経済的な後ろ盾でフーヴァー政権の財務長官でもあった。メロンは後に義理の甥になるハリー J アンスリンガーを彼が1962まで留まった麻薬劇薬局と連邦麻薬局の局長に任命した。

In 1916, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) chief scientists Jason L. Merrill and Lyster H. Dewe created paper made from hemp pulp, which they concluded was "favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood in USDA Bulletin No. 404." In his book Herer summarized the findings of Bulletin No. 404
Herer wrote:
1916年米合衆国農務省(USAD)の科学者主任ジェイソン L メリルとリスター H ディユは麻から紙を作り出し、彼等は木材パルプから作られた紙と比べて質が良いとUSDAの報告書No404で結論付けている。ハレアーは報告書No404の発見を手短に述べている。

USDA Bulletin No. 404, reported that one acre of hemp, in annual rotation over a 20-year period, would produce as much pulp for paper as 4.1 acres (17,000 m2) of trees being cut down over the same 20-year period. This process would use only 1/4 to 1/7 as much polluting sulfur-based acid chemicals to break down the glue-like lignin that binds the fibers of the pulp, or even none at all using soda ash. The problem of dioxin contamination of rivers is avoided in the hemp paper making process, which does not need to use chlorine bleach (as the wood pulp paper making process requires) but instead safely substitutes hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching process. ... If the new (1916) hemp pulp paper process were legal today, it would soon replace about 70% of all wood pulp paper, including computer printout paper, corrugated boxes and paper bags.

Hemp was a relatively easy target because factories already had made large investments in equipment to handle cotton, wool, and linen, but there were relatively small investments in hemp production. Big technological improvements in the wood pulp industry were invented in the 1930s, for example the recovery boiler, and other improvements came later. So, there is a niche market for hemp paper, but the cost of hemp pulp is approximately six times that of wood pulp.[27] There was also a misconception hemp had an intoxicating effect because it has the same active substance, THC, which is in potent cannabis strains; however, hemp only has minimal amount of THC when compared to recreational cannabis strains.
工場が既に木綿、ウール、リネン、等を取り扱う為の設備に大きな投資をしていたので麻は比較的容易な素材であったが、麻に対しては投資額は比較的に少なかった。例えば、リカヴァリーボイラーの様な、木材パルプ業界の大きな技術革新には1930年代に投資が行われ、その他の技術革新も後に続いた。と言う事で麻で作られた紙には特殊な市場(niche marketニッシ マーケト)があるのではあるが、麻のパルプは木材パルプの約6倍の費用が必要なのである。其れに加えて、 強力な種類の麻(大麻)に含まれているTHC、と言う同じ物質が麻に含まれていて、麻には酔わせる様な効果と言う一つの誤解がある。然し、娯楽用の麻類(大麻、マリワナ)と比較すると麻には最小限のTHCしか含まれていないのです。

An alternative explanation for Anslinger's opinion's about hemp is that he believed that a tax on cannabis could be easier to supervise if it included hemp and that he had reports from experiments with mechanical harvesting of hemp reporting that the machines was no success and reports about cannabis farms.

"The existence of the old 1934-1935 crop of harvested hemp on the fields of southern Minnesota is a menace to society in that it is being used by traffickers in marihuana as a source of supply."

"they were able to cut only a part of the Tribune Farm crop by machine, two thirds of it they did by hand with a sharp hand cuttertuff".

An argument for the alternative theory is that hemp was not an alternative as material in the new commercial products from DuPont using oil or coal as raw material, the nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938) followed more famously by women's “nylons” stockings (1940). Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk not hemp.
上記の説に対する議論は“麻は、石炭と石油が原料のデュポンのナイロンが使われている歯ブラシ(1938年)、もっと有名な女性のナイロン ストッキング(1940年)の様な、新しい商業製品代替原料ではなかった。ナイロンは絹の代わりになる人工の代替品と意図された。それは麻ではなかった。”と言う事である。

Andrew Mellon, Banker and Congressman.
アンドリュー メロン、銀行家そして議員。

Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 — August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.

Hemp Downunderと言うオーストラリアのサイトの一部の翻訳です。

Andrew Mellon was, in his time, one of the richest men in America. He was owner of the Mellon Bank and was financial backer for petro-chemical giant DuPont Chemicals. He was also a Congressman and Secretary of the Treasury under President Hoover. This was power.
アンドリュー メロンは彼の生きた時代アメリカで最も裕福な人の一人であった。彼はメロン バンクの所有者で石油化学業界の巨人デュポン ケミカルの経済的支援者であった。そして彼は下院議員でフーヴァー大統領の財務長官であった。此れは権力だ!

Part of his portfolio of political responsibilities was the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, to which he appointed his nephew-in-law, Harry Anslinger, as head. This was nepotism.
彼の政治的義務のポトフォリオの一部は連邦麻薬捜査局で、其処に彼は局長としてハリー アンスリンガー、義理の甥を指名したのだった。此れはネポティズムだ!

Nepotism 親戚や知人を官職に就ける等の優遇する行為。親族優遇。

The appointment of Ainslinger was to have important historical consequences for U.S. agriculture and Big Business, and indirectly have a huge impact on the global environment.

In the late '30s hemp was shaping up to be 'the crop of the future' - and Mellon stood to lose millions because of his petro-chemical investments. With his powerful political and family connections he was in a strategic position to "look after" his business associates and frustrate their competitors.
1930年代後半“未来の農作物”として麻は成りつつあった。そしてメロンは石油化学業界への投資で何百万ドルも失う筈だった。政治的そして家族のコネクションで彼のビジネス アソシエイトの面倒を見競争相手の邪魔をする重要な地位に居たのだった。

Dupont : the Nylon King

Dupont Chemicals was, and still is, one of the largest petro-chemical manufacturers in America. It's multi-national tentacles stretch far. You can see advertisements for their products on government buses here in Australia.
デュポン ケミカルはアメリカで一番大きい石油化学製造会社の一つだッた。そして今もそうだ。其の多国籍企業としての触手は遠くまで延びている。此処オーストラリアでは、この企業の製品の広告は政府のバスでも見る事が出来る。

Around 1935 Dupont had patented a new synthetic fibre called Nylon, and a great deal of money was invested in an extensive campaign to market Nylon to the public. Hemp at this stage was still a legal crop, and though its natural attributes were many, it's labour intensive production process made it very expensive in comparison with cotton and the new, chemically-produced Nylon.

However, a machine which had been invented in the early 1900's and perfected around 1937 was set to revolutionize the Hemp industry. The decorticator would separate the herds from the stalks, leaving the long fibers ready to be put into bails. What the "cotton gin" did for the cotton industry, the decorticator was about to do for the manufacturing of a wide variety of hemp products, especially paper-making, rope-making and as a raw material for clothing manufacture. Dupont stood to lose millions.

A cotton gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds, a job previously done by hand.

Banker to the Dupont empire at this time was a certain Andrew Mellon, who also happened to be a Congressman and Secretary to the Treasury. Included in Mellon's portfolio was responsiblity for the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Mellon appointed his nephew-in-law, Harry Anslinger to head the Bureau. Collusion cannot be proved, but Anslingers activities in this role had a huge indirect impact on American agricultural and manufacturing processes, and of course Mellon's business interests.
当時のデュポン帝国の銀行はアンドリューメロンでそして偶然にも彼は下院議員、又財務長官度もあった。彼のポトフォリオは連邦麻薬局についての責任も含んでいた。メロンは甥のハリー アンスリンガーを局長に任命した。共謀していたかどうかは証明できないが、然し、アンスリンガーのこの役割(連邦麻薬局長)での活動は間接的にアメリカ農業と其の製造過程に、そして勿論メロンのビジネスの利害に大きな影響を与えた。

In December 1937 Anslinger introduced the Marijuana Tax Bill, an event which proved to be the beginning of the era of Prohibition of Cannabis.

Simultaneously, a fear campaign of anti-Marijuana propaganda was run as front page "news" stories by one of America's most powerful newspaper proprietors, Randolf Hearst. By coincidence Hearst had begun using wood-pulp for paper and invested heavily in its production. The chemicals used to make the wood-pulp suitable for news-print were supplied by Dupont Chemicals. Hemp's fate was sealed.

Few of the congressmen who voted in favour of this Bill realised that they were in effect making all strains of Hemp illegal, subsequently wiping out the industrial hemp industry. In an age when environmental awareness was still dismally limited, fewer of these law-makers could have imagined the future ramifications in terms of environmental degradation which would result from this conspiracy to remove hemp, the strongest, most ecologically sustainable and least pollutant of fibres, from the available range of raw materials suitable for manufacture of paper, rope and cloth fabric.

William Randolph Hearst,
ウイリアム ランドルフ ハースト

Newspaper & printmill baron

(baronバロンは男爵と言う意味ですが、軽蔑的な意味で~王、と言う場合アメリカ英語ではバロンが使われます。例えば、19世紀後半~20世紀初頭のアメリカの企業家、資本家達、カーネギー、ロックフェラー、メロン、モーガン、ヴァンダービルト、等はRobber baron泥棒男爵と呼ばれています。)

Randolph Hearst was, during his lifetime, proprietor of one of the largest and most powerful newspaper empires in the U.S.A.

Through editorial sway over his print-media outlets, Hearst introduced to America and the rest of the world the Mexican slang term Marihuana. Anti-Marihuana proganda in headlines and front-page stories from Hearst Newspapers were used by Harry Anslinger, head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, for his famous Gore File and later as the main body of evidence to support and push through the Marihuana Tax Bill of 1937, the beginning of prohibition as we know it today. By subtly linking the Marihuana menace with racial overtones, Hearst and Anslinger cleverly played on American pre-war xenophobia and isolationism.
彼の出版物への編集上の影響力を利用してハーストはメキシコのスラングである“マリワナ”をアメリカやその他の諸国に紹介した。ハーストの新聞の反マリワナプロパガンダの見出しや第一面の記事は連邦麻薬局長のハリーアンスリンガーによって1937年のマリワナ税条例を議会で承認させる為、後に主な証拠となった彼の有名な“ゴア ファイル”として利用された。巧妙にマリワナの脅威を人種差別に絡め、ハーストとアンスリンガーは戦前のアメリカ人の外国嫌いや孤立主義を巧妙に利用していった。

This was beginning of the "smoke-screen" which uses the confusion between industrial hemp and "illicit psycho-stimulants" as a lever for eliminating the traditional use of hemp fibre from the Capitalist equation. This is still the problem to this day in gaining research funding for industrial use of the hemp.

Was it coincidence that around the time of this wave of media hysteria, Hearst had tooled up his paper mills to use wood-pulp as the raw material for the large scale manufacture of paper, no doubt a substantial commitment and investment? It was clearly not in Hearst's interest to see the strongest traditional challenger as an alternative raw material for paper, hemp, suddenly become much cheaper. The chemicals, such as deadly chlorine bleaches, essential to the process of turning wood-pulp into acceptable paper (a use for which timber is not particularly well-suited) were developed and supplied by Dupont, who by co-incidence (?) also held the patent on hemp's new artificial rival, Nylon.

The consequences of America going down this road have been felt in rainforests the world over in succeeding decades. Australia, still in a phase of political and cultural insecurity, followed blindly on "the shirt-tails" of this immoral conspiracy by the leading capitalists of the pre-war era. Little, if any, research has been carried out into these issues "down under".
アメリカがこの道を選んだ事は其の後の何十年間、世界中の雨林に影響を与えた。未だに政治的文化的に自信の無いオーストラリアは盲目的に("the shirt-tails")ザシャツテイルの様な不道徳な戦前の支配的資本家の陰謀に追随した。オーストラリア"down under".ではこの問題については殆ど研究がなされていない。

the shirt-tails 19世紀、ニューヨーク、マンハッタンのFive Pointsファイヴポインツスのスラムを拠点としたギャンググループの名前。メンバーの印として、シャツをズボン中に入れず着用した事が名前の由来。

down under オーストラリアの別名。

 処で、ヘンリー フォードは元々アルコールを燃料と考えていて、ディーゼルエンジンを開発したルドルフ ディーゼルも植物オイルを燃料に想定してディーゼルエンジンを開発、1900年のワールドフェアではピーナッツオイルを燃料にエンジンを始動させたのです。フォードは植物から作られるプラスチックで車体を作る事を最初から研究し、大豆からプラスチックを製造し、麻も繊維やオイル等がプラスチック、燃料の原料とされ1941年には植物プラスチックで車体が作られた自動車を完成したのですが、どう言う訳か突然植物から自動車を作り植物燃料を使う計画を放棄したそうです。理由は不明だそうです。
          と言う cannabis hemp dot info episode #2 タイトルです。


Ralph Nader ラルフ ネイダー曰く

Many corporate officials share a common, perverse outlook. To them, the globe is viewed primarily as a common market and capital source. Governments, laws and democracy are inconvenient factors that restrict their exploitation and limit their profit. From their perspective, the goal is to eliminate market barriers on a global scale. From any other humane perspective, such barriers are seen as valued safeguards established to protect a nation's population ...

ウイキペディア より。
the United States Government does not distinguish between marijuana and non-psychoactive Cannabis used for industrial and commercial purposes.

にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ



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zen9you さん、コメントありがとうございます。そうですね最も初期の自動車は電気自動車だったそうですね。フォードも最初トーマス エディソンの技術者だったそうです。

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自民党政権のうちに、野党が反対しそうな問題はどんどん決めていけとの アメリカからの命令によるのかもしれないけれど、 一昔前だったら何日間も国会が空転していたに違いないような問題が、 次々と国民にろくに説明もしないまま決定されて行っている。 今朝のニュース