Beethoven and the Illuminati

How the secret order influenced the great composer.

By Jan Swafford, Slate Magazine

In 1779, a composer, writer, teacher, and dreamer named Christian Neefe arrived in Bonn, Germany, to work for the Electoral Court. Neefe (pronounced nay-fuh) was the definition of what Germans call a Schw醇Brmer, a person swarming with rapturous enthusiasms. In particular, he was inflamed with visions of endless human potentials that the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment promised to unleash. Like many progressives of the time, Neefe believed that humanity was finally coming of age. So he had picked the right place to get a job. Bonn was one of the most cultured and enlightened cities in Germany; the court supported a splendid musical and theatrical establishment. Before long in his new post, Neefe found himself mentoring a genius. Meanwhile, in his spare time, he signed on with a plan to, as it were, rule the world.

1779年、作曲家、作家、教育者そして夢想家がElectoral Court(選挙公宮廷?)で働く為ドイツの都市ボンに到着した。彼の名はクリスチャン ネイファ。ネイファはドイツ人がSchw醇Brmerシャヴェルメール?と呼ぶ、はちきれんばかりの情熱で溢れている人の典型だった。特に、彼は科学的革命と啓蒙主義が解き放つ無限の人間の可能性と言うヴィジョンに興奮していた。当時の他の多くの進歩主義者と同様にネイファは人類は終に成人に達したと信じていた。と言う事で彼は仕事をする為に最適な場所を選んだのであった。ボンはドイツで最も文化的で啓蒙的な都市のひとつであった。宮廷は素晴らしいミュージカルや劇場を支援していた。其処でネイファはまもなく新しい仕事で、ある天才を指導する羽目になるのであった。其の傍ら暇な時間にある計画に志願したのである。其の計画とは世界を支配すると言う事であった。ジャジャーン!

One of Neefe's first students was a sullen, grubby, taciturn 10-year-old keyboard player named Ludwig van Beethoven. He was the son of an alcoholic singer who had more or less beat music into him. The kid seemed more like a charity case than a budding musician, but Neefe soon discovered that his talent could put him in the league of the musical phenomenon of the age, a child of freakish gifts named Mozart.

最初のネイフの生徒の一人は無愛想で、汚らしく、非社交的なルートヴィッヒ フォン ベートーベンと言う名前の10歳のキーボード演奏家だった。(ベートーベンは)彼に音楽を教えると言うよりは叩き込むと言った方が妥当なアルコール中毒の歌手である父親の息子だった。この子は音楽家の卵と言うよりはどちらかと言うとネイファにとっては(ベートーベンに教える事は)慈善行為の様な物だった。しかしネイファは直ぐにベートーベンのタレントは当時の音楽界での神童でモーツアルトと言う名前の異様な才能の持ち主と同じリーグの仲間入りをさせる事が出来る事に気が付いたのだった。

Ludwig was named for his grandfather, who had been Kapellmeister, head of the court musical establishment. Old Ludwig's son, Johann van Beethoven, was a tenor in the choir; when his father died, he had made a bid to become Kapellmeister. Everybody but Johann understood that was ludicrous: He was a competent singer and music teacher, otherwise hopelessly mediocre and a devotee of the bottle. As often happens, the full ferocity of the father's blighted ambition landed on the son. Johann van Beethoven intended to make his oldest child into another Mozart, or else.

ルートビッヒはカペルマイスター(指揮者)で宮廷歌劇の指導者であった彼の御祖父さんにちなんで名付けられていた。ルートヴィッヒ御祖父さんの息子、ヨハン フォン ベートーベンはコーラスのテナー歌手で彼の父が他界した時カペルマイスターになる挑戦をしたのだが、ヨハン以外は彼の挑戦は馬鹿げた行為と思っていた。彼は有能な歌手で先生だったが其れ以外は凡庸でアル中だった。良く聞く話だが、父親の成し遂げれなかった野望が息子にのしかかったのである。ヨハン フォン ベートーベンは彼の長男をもう一人のモーツアルトにする積りだった。さもないと…………………………。

Neighbors used to see tiny Ludwig standing on a bench to reach the keyboard, his father standing over him shouting and threatening, the boy weeping as he played. When Ludwig was 7, his father put him on display in a concert and for good measure advertised him as age 6, the same as Mozart when he became famous. Johann was hoping for a sensation, but nothing came of it (except that Beethoven was confused about his age for the rest of his life). At 7 he had been a terrifically precocious keyboard player, but he wasn't another Mozart, at least not yet.


By the time Christian Neefe arrived in Bonn and started teaching Beethoven organ and composition, the 10-year-old was as good a keyboard player as anybody in town. Soon Neefe got into print some variations Ludwig had written, one of his first pieces―slight and conventional, still not Mozart but impressive for his age. In a newspaper article, Neefe cited the variations and said the magic words: With proper nurturing, this boy will "surely become a second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart."

クリスチャン ネイファがボンに到着しベートーベンにオルガンと作曲を教え始めていた時、この10歳の子供は町のどのキーボード演奏家達と同じほど良い演奏家となっていた。直ぐにネイファはルートヴィヒの作曲した幾つかの曲を出版し始めた.其の中の最初の一つはつまらない代わり映えのしない物で、未だモーツアルトと比べられる様な物でははなかったが、彼の年齢にしては印象的なものだった。新聞の記事でネイファはベートーベンの曲について引用した中で魔法の言葉を使っている。『適切な教育によってこの少年は確実に2番目のヴォルフガング アマデウス モーツアルトになる。』と。

By his midteens, Beethoven was a court musician in various capacities and making huge strides as a composer. His father had pulled him out of school after a few years so he could concentrate on music. (Beethoven learned to add and subtract but never learned to multiply. If he had to multiply 65 by 59, he wrote 65 in a column 59 times and added it up.) Meanwhile his father was promoting him relentlessly, mounting concerts in the house and taking him on tours around the Rhineland. By that point, there was little question in Ludwig's or anybody else's mind that he was headed for big things. One day when his landlord's daughter accosted him with, "How dirty you're looking again! You ought to keep yourself properly clean," he told her, "What's the difference? When I become a gentleman, nobody will care."

10代の中頃になった頃はルートヴィッヒ ベートーベンは種々の資格で宮廷音楽家として働きそして作曲家として大きな前進をしていた。彼の父は音楽に集中できる様にルートヴィッヒを数年で学校から退学させた。(ベートーベンは足し算と引き算を習ったが掛け算は全く習わなかった。若し65と59の掛け算をしなければならない時は,彼は65を縦に59回書いて足し合わせたのだった。)同時にコンサートを家で開催したり彼をラインランド至る所ツアーにつれ回し足りして、彼の父はルートヴィッヒを容赦なく売り込んでいた。この時点ではもう彼がデッカイ何かに向かっている事にルートヴィッヒや其の他の誰の心にも疑いはなかった。ある日彼の地主の娘が『貴方又なんて汚らしくしているの!チャント奇麗にしてなきゃ駄目じゃないの!』と語り掛けて来た時『そんな事どんな違いがある?私が紳士になったらそんな事誰も気になんかするもんか!』とルートヴィッヒは彼女に言ったのだった。

Which is to say that Beethoven was a prodigy and had the classic prodigy's trouble: He knew all about music, but he didn't know how to live. He had only a hazy sense of the reality of other people. Throughout Beethoven's youth, a row of mentors would attempt to civilize and socialize him, with mixed results.


In those years, his first serious mentor, Neefe the Schw醇Brmer, was in an especially perfervid phase of his spiritual life. For some time he had been a Freemason, a group then in its first century as a progressive, international, secular, semisecret order open to men of all faiths. (As such, the Masons were loathed by churches and regimes alike.) But Neefe was tired of the Masons' endless chatter of liberty and morality. He wanted a more ambitious and active kind of brotherhood―say, a new world order. That took him to one of the more bizarre sideshows of the Enlightenment: the Bavarian Illuminati. A Bonn lodge of the Illuminati formed, and Beethoven's teacher became head of it.

其の当時、彼の最初の本格的な指導者“ネイファ ザ シュヴェーマー”は特に熱狂的な精神生活の局面に差し掛かっていた。既に彼は全ての宗教を信じる人間が受け入れられる国際的で、世俗的、半分秘密的な結社、当時進歩的なグループとして最初の世紀を迎えていたフリーメイソンの一員だった。(それだけで、メイソンは教会や政権等に同様に忌み嫌われていた。)然しネイファはメイソンの終わりの無い自由と道徳についての御喋りに嫌気がさしていた。彼はもっと野望的で活動的な仲間を欲していた………言ってみればニューワールドオーダーの様な……………..。其れはネイファを啓蒙主義運動の中のもっと変てこな余興の一つに結び付けたのだった。其れは“バヴァリアンイルミナティ”ボンのイルミナティ支部が結成されベートーベンの先生が其の支部の親分になったのである。

Founded in 1776 by a Bavarian professor named Adam Weishaupt, the Illuminati joined radical politics and Jesuit-style hierarchy to fanatical secrecy. The aims of the order were ambitious, all right: They intended to change the world and had a plan to do it. The means were not to be by violent revolutions. The idea was to form a cadre of enlightened men who would steathlily infiltrate governments everywhere and slowly bring them to a kind of secular-humanist Elysium under the guidance of a secret ruling body. Said Adam Weishaupt: "Princes and nations shall disappear from the face of the earth peacefully, mankind shall become one family, and the world shall become a haven of reasonable people. Morality shall achieve this transformation, alone and imperceptibly."

For every Illuminatus, the perfection of society started with the perfection of one's own moral character. Aspiring members were given piles of text to read, required to write a rigorous self-examination and to undergo ritualized interrogations:


Where have you come from?/ From the world of the first chosen.
Whither do you want to go?/ To the inmost sanctum.
What do you seek there?/ He who is, who was, and who shall always be.
What inspires you?/ The light, which lives in me and is now ablaze in me.


For all the moony mysticism, the Illuminati had a high-Enlightenment agenda, rational, humanistic, and universal. They published a monthly magazine, Contributions to the Spread of Useful Knowledge, which was partly Enlightenment cheerleading, partly practical items relating to husbandry, housekeeping, and the like. Duty was the essence of Illuminati teaching, but it was an Enlightenment kind of duty: duty not to God or to princes but to the order and to humanity.


In practice, the Illuminati amounted to a kind of activist left wing of the Freemasons, from whom they drew most of their members. The numbers were never large, but they included people like Goethe (briefly) and Christian Koerner, a close friend and confidant of Friedrich Schiller. Koerner's influence seems to be why some Illuminati-tinged ideas―universal brotherhood and the triumph of happiness bringing humanity to Elysium―turned up in Schiller's famous poem Ode to Joy, which was often set to music and sung in Masonic and Illuminati circles. The poem would later enter history via the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

現実には、イルミナティはフリーメイソンの左翼活動家の様な役割を果たし、其の殆どのメンバーはフリーメイソンから得たのであった。メンバーの数は決して多くは無かったがゲーテ(短期間)やフレデリック シラーの親友クリスチャン コーナーの様な人々が含まれていた。コーナーの影響で…….普遍の同士と幸福の勝利が人類に極楽をもたらすと言うアイデアが、曲や歌としてフリーメイソンやイルミナティの仲間達の間で取り上げられたシラーの有名な詩“喜びの頌歌”に表れている様に感じられる。この詩は後にベートーベンの第九シンフォニーのフィナーレとして歴史上に残るのである。

As an Illuminatus, an important part of Christian Neefe's duty was to covertly inculcate promising young people in the ideals of the order, then to recruit them when they came of age. Beethoven was as promising as young people get. So did Neefe inculcate this student? Surely he did. Was Beethoven recruited to the order? No―the Illuminati dissolved in 1785, when he was 14. There is also a question as to how inculcatable Beethoven was by anybody. Even in his teens, he was so fixed on his own tack that he only intermittently took notice of the rest of the world.


Not only Neefe, but then and later most of Beethoven's other friends and mentors and patrons were ex-Illuminati or Freemasons. Did those influences have an impact on his life and art? Among many other things, certainly. By the time Beethoven left Bonn, he was already planning to set Schiller's Ode to music, and he had a good idea what that poem was about, from its humanistic surface to its Masonic and Illuminati depths. By then Bonn had helped give him ideas and ideals about being a composer that no one ever had before. He wanted to be something more than an entertainer. He wanted to be part of history.


If Beethoven had come from anywhere but Bonn he still might have been a genius, but he would not have been the same man and composer. True, he was more self-made than anything else, could see the world only through his own lens. He was a legendarily recalcitrant student and claimed to have learned nothing from any of his teachers. His most celebrated teacher, Joseph Haydn, sardonically dubbed Beethoven die grosse Mogul―in today's terms, the big shot. Yet at the same time, Beethoven was by no means aloof. He soaked up every idea around him, read voluminously in classical and modern literature, studied the music of older masters and modeled what he did on them. His art drew from myriad sources, among them the extravagant humanistic ideals floating around Bonn in his youth. One of the things it all added up to was something like this: music as an esoteric language wielded by a few enlightened men for the benefit of the world. Beethoven was all about duty to the abstraction called humanity. That was what he was taught and what he lived and wrote for, through all the miseries of going deaf and a great deal of physical pain. It was people he didn't much care about. But in taking up Schiller's Ode for the Ninth Symphony, he proposed not just to preach a sermon about the brotherhood of humanity and the dream of Elysium. He wanted the Ninth to help bring those things to pass.

若しベートーベンがボンではなく他の所からやって来たとしても、やはり彼は天才だったかも知れない。然し、彼は同じ人間で同じ作曲家ではなかっただろう。確かに彼は世界を自分自身のレンズを通してしか見れない事により、何よりも自分自身の能力で成功している。彼は伝説的なほど強情な生徒で、彼のどの先生からも何も習わなかったと宣言している。彼の最も有名な先生、ヨゼフハイドンは嘲笑的にベートーベンをdie grosse Mogul―ディーグロスモグル今日の言葉で大物(big shot.)と呼んでいる。しかしながら同時にベートーベンは冷淡で無関心と言う訳ではなかった。彼は周りの全てのアイデアを吸収し、膨大な量の古典と近代文学を読み、昔の大作曲家を勉強し手本にして真似ていた。彼の芸術は無数の源泉から成り立っていて、彼が青年時代を過ごしたボンのとっぴな人道主義的理想も其の中の一つであった。其の様に出来上がった中の一つでこの様な物がある:秘密の言語で啓蒙された少数の人間によって世界の為に使用される。ベートーベンの人生は人道主義と言う抽象的な物への義務だった。聴覚を失う悲劇や肉体的な大きな痛みを通り越し、其れが彼が教えられた物であり、その為に生き、その為に作曲した。彼がそれほど好きじゃなかった物は人間だった。然し、シラーの“喜びの頌歌”を第九に取り上げる事によって、単に人類愛や楽園の夢について説教を説くだけでなく、それらを企てたのである。彼は第九がそれらが実現する手助けとなる様に望んだのである。

As for the Illuminati, call them one more example of the Enlightenment's excesses of hope for human perfectibility. Since Beethoven's day, the secrecy and world-ordering agenda of the Illuminati have made them a natural magnet for conspiracy freaks. Awww, how cute you are! - ILThe Illuminati actually existed only some nine years, but there are still lots of folks, including many on the American religious right and the John Birch Society, who believe the Illuminati are the mother of all conspiracies, a Jewish-dominated international cabal that has more or less run the world since they incited the French Revolution. My saying they were a short-lived and a bit pathetic phenomenon makes me, of course, part of the conspiracy―along with Beethoven. I'd like finally to meet some of my fellow conspirators. They seem like interesting people.



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エジプトの神HorusホールスとYeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesusナザレスのヨシュア別名イエスの類似点。

Only begotten son of the God Osiris.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus イエス
Only begotten son of Yehovah (in the form of the Holy Spirit).

Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus イエス
Miriam (a.k.a. Mary).
Foster father:

Seb, (Jo-Seph)
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Foster father's ancestry:

両者とも........................Of royal descent.王族の子孫
Birth location

In a cave
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
In a cave or stable

By an angel to Isis, his mother
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
By an angel to Miriam, his mother
Birth heralded by

The star Sirius, the morning star
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
An unidentified "star in the East."
Birth date:

Ancient Egyptians paraded a manger and child representing Horus through the streets at the time of the winter solstice (typically DEC-21).
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Celebrated on DEC-25. The date was chosen to occur on the same date as the birth of Mithra, Dionysus and the Sol Invictus (unconquerable Sun), etc.
Birth announcement:

両者とも....................................By angels.天使によって
Birth witnesses:

Later witnesses to birth:

Three solar deities.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Three wise men
Death threat during infancy:

Herut tried to have Horus murdered.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Herod tried to have Jesus murdered.
Handling the threat:

The God That tells Horus' mother "Come, thou godess Isis, hide thyself with thy child."
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
An angel tells Jesus' father to: "Arise and take the young child and his mother and flee into Egypt."
Rite of passage ritual:

Horus came of age with a special ritual, when his eye was restored.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Taken by parents to the temple for what is today called a bar mitzvah ritual.
Age at the ritual:

Break in life history

No data between ages of 12 & 30.
Baptism location:

Horus..............................................................In the river Eridanusエリダヌス河
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus.............In the river Jordan.ヨルダン河
Age at baptism:
Baptized by:

Horus............................................................Anup the Baptiser. 洗礼者アヌプ
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus..........John the Baptist 洗礼者ジョン
Subsequent fate of the baptiser:

Taken from the desert of Amenta up a high mountain by his arch-rival Sut. Sut (a.k.a. Set) was a precursor for the Hebrew Satan.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Taken from the desert in Palestine up a high mountain by his arch-rival Satan.
Result of temptation:

Horus resists temptation.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Jesus resists temptation.

Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. He "stilled the sea by his power."
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. He ordered the sea with a "Peace, be still" command.
Raising of the dead:

Horus raised Osirus, his dead father, from the grave.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Jesus raised Lazarus from the grave.
Location where the resurrection miracle occurred:

Anu, an Egyptian city where the rites of the death, burial and resurrection of Horus were enacted annually.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Hebrews added their prefix for house ('beth") to "Anu" to produce "Beth-Anu" or the "House of Anu." Since "u" and "y" were interchangeable in antiquity, "Bethanu" became "Bethany," the location mentioned in John 11.
Origin of Lazarus' name in the Gospel of John:
Asar was an alternative name for Osirus, Horus' father, who Horus raised from the dead. He was referred to as "the Asar," as a sign of respect. Translated into Hebrew, this is "El-Asar." The Romans added the prefix "us" to indicate a male name, producing "Elasarus." Over time, the "E" was dropped and "s" became "z," producing "Lazarus."
アサルはホールスが死から復活させたの父オシルスの別名で彼は敬意を表してアサルTHE ASARと呼ばれていた。ヘブライ語に翻訳されEl-Asarとなり、ローマ人が男性名詞を示す接頭辞USを加えてElasarusとし、長い間にEが落とされ、SがZに変わりLazarusとなった。

Horus..............................................................On a mountain.山頂
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a.Jesus..............On a high mountain.山の高み。
Key address(es):

Sermon on the Mount.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Sermon on the Mount; Sermon on the Plain.
Method of death
...........................................両者ともBy crucifixion.十字架での死
Accompanied by:
......................両者ともTwo thieves.二人の泥棒
................................................両者ともIn a tomb.墓場
Fate after death:

Descended into Hell; resurrected after three days.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Descended into Hell; resurrected after about 30 to 38 hours (Friday PM to presumably some time in Sunday AM) covering parts of three days.
Resurrection announced by:
..................................両者ともReign for 1,000 years in the Millennium.千年間の支配
Common portrayal:

Virgin Isis holding the infant Horus.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Virgin Mary holding the infant Jesus.
KRST, the anointed one.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Christ, the anointed one.
Other names:他の名前
The good shepherd, the lamb of God, the bread of life, the son of man, the Word, the fisher, the winnower.



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メリー クリスマス。I wish you a Merry Christmas !


How Did Christmas Come to Be...


Christmas has always been a holiday celebrated carelessly. For millennia, pagans, Christians, and even Jews have been swept away in the season’s festivities, and very few people ever pause to consider the celebration’s intrinsic meaning, history, or origins.


The word "Christmas" means "Mass of Christ," or, as it came to be shortened, "Christ-Mass." It came to non-Christians and Protestants from the Roman Catholic Church. And where did they get it? NOT from the New Testament - NOT from the Bible - NOT from the original apostles who were personally instructed by Christ - but it gravitated in the fourth century into the Roman Church from paganism.


Roman pagans first introduced the holiday of Saturnalia, a week long period of lawlessness celebrated between December 17-25.The ancient Greek writer poet and historian Lucian (in his dialogue entitled Saturnalia) describes the festival’s observance in his time. "In addition to human sacrifice, he mentions these customs: widespread intoxication; going from house to house while singing naked; rape and other sexual license; and consuming human-shaped biscuits" (still produced in some English and most German bakeries during the Christmas season).


440 AD POPE SIXTUS III establishes Roman Pontifical Authority as state law. Perpetual Virgin Mary declared Mother of God and modern Christ-Mass takes final form as mandatory state law.POPE SIXth III Created along with the Roman Ceasar Theodosius II, a CODEX which enforced the ROMAN CHRIST – MASS as STATE LAW. Dissenters were declared “legally Insane.


Christianity imported the Saturnalia festival (4th century CE) hoping to take the pagan masses in with it. Christian leaders succeeded in converting to Christianity large numbers of pagans by promising them that they could continue to celebrate the Saturnalia as Christians.


The problem was that there was nothing intrinsically Christian about Saturnalia. To remedy this, these Christian leaders named Saturnalia’s concluding day, December 25th, to be Jesus’ birthday.Christians had little success, however, refining the practices of Saturnalia. As Stephen Nissenbaum, professor history at the University of Massachussetts, Amherst, writes, “In return for ensuring massive observance of the anniversary of the Savior’s birth by assigning it to this resonant date, the Church for its part tacitly agreed to allow the holiday to be celebrated more or less the way it had always been.” The earliest Christmas holidays were celebrated by drinking, sexual indulgence, singing naked in the streets etc.


The Reverend Increase Mather of Boston observed in 1687 that “the early Christians who first observed the Nativity on December 25 did not do so thinking that Christ was born in that Month, but because the Heathens’ Saturnalia was at that time kept in Rome, and they were willing to have those Pagan Holidays metamorphosed into Christian ones.” Because of its known pagan origin, Christmas was banned by the Puritans and its observance was illegal in Massachusetts between 1659 and 1681. However, Christmas was and still is celebrated by most Christians.

The Reverend Increase Mather of Bostonは1687年にこう書き留めている『12月25日に救世主の誕生を祝った初期のキリスト教徒はキリストが12月に生まれたと思ってした訳ではない、然し異教徒のサターナリアが当時のローマでは残っていて、異教徒の祝日がキリスト教の祝日に変質していく事を望んでいた。』この知られているクリスマスの異教の起源の為に清教徒の間ではクリスマスは禁止され其れを祝うことはマサチューセッツでは1659年~1681年の間違法であった。然しながらクリスマスは殆どのキリスト教徒によって祝われていて、今も祝われている。

Some of the most depraved customs of the Saturnalia carnival were intentionally revived by the Catholic Church in 1466 when Pope Paul II, for the amusement of his Roman citizens, forced Jews to race naked through the streets of the city. An eyewitness account reports, “Before they were to run, the Jews were richly fed, so as to make the race more difficult for them and at the same time more amusing for spectators. They ran… amid Rome’s taunting shrieks and peals of laughter, while the Holy Father stood upon a richly ornamented balcony and laughed heartily.”

最も邪悪なサターナリア カーニヴァルの習慣の一つは1466年にカトリック教会の教皇ポール2世によって意図的に復活された。其れはローマ市民の楽しみの為ユダヤ教信者を裸で街を走らせるという物だった。目撃者の報告によると『彼等が走り出す前に彼等が走り難くなる為と、観客を楽しませる為にユダヤ教徒は沢山食事を食べさせられた。そして彼等はローマ市民の嘲り、叫び、調子を合わせた笑いの中走っていった。その間教皇は豪華に飾り付けられたバルコニーに立ち盛んに笑っていた。』

The Origins of Christmas Customs.

(Yule) - When the sun begins its northward trek in the sky, and days began to grow longer again, pagans celebrated the Winter Solstice by burning the Yule log. Since the sun had reversed itself and was now rising in the sky, pagans believed this was a sign that the human sacrifices carried out in Samhain (Halloween) had been accepted by the gods.


As the song: Deck the halls with boughs of holly … troll the ancient Yuletide carol … See the blazing Yule before us. Fa la la la la la la la. Song represent Pagan Traditions of the Holidays.


Christmas Trees.クリスマスツリー
Just as early Christians recruited Roman pagans by associating Christmas with the Saturnalia, so too worshippers of the Asheira cult and its offshoots were recruited by the Church sanctioning “Christmas Trees”. Pagans had long worshipped trees in the forest, or brought them into their homes and decorated them, and this observance was adopted and painted with a Christian veneer by the Church.


Norse mythology recounts how the god Balder was killed using a mistletoe arrow by his rival god Hoder while fighting for the female Nanna. Druid rituals use mistletoe to poison their human sacrificial victim. The Christian custom of “kissing under the mistletoe” is a later synthesis of the sexual license of Saturnalia with the Druidic sacrificial cult.


Christmas Presentsクリスマスプレゼント

In pre-Christian Rome, the emperors compelled their most despised citizens to bring offerings and gifts during the Saturnalia (in December) and Kalends (in January). Later, this ritual expanded to include gift-giving among the general populace. The Catholic Church gave this custom a Christian flavor by re-rooting it in the supposed gift-giving of Sain Nicholas


Santa Claus サンタクロース
Nicholas was born in Parara, Turkey in 270 CE and later became Bishop of Myra. He died in 345 CE on December 6th. He was only named a saint in the 19th century.
Nicholas was among the most senior bishops who convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and created the New Testament. The text they produced portrayed Jews as “the children of the devil" who sentenced Jesus to death.


In 1087, a group of sailors who idolized Nicholas moved his bones from Turkey to a sanctuary in Bari, Italy. There Nicholas supplanted a female boon-giving deity called The Grandmother, or Pasqua Epiphania, who used to fill the children's stockings with her gifts. The Grandmother was ousted from her shrine at Bari, which became the center of the Nicholas cult. Members of this group gave each other gifts during a pageant they conducted annually on the anniversary of Nicholas’ death, December 6.

1089年、ニコラスに心酔する船乗りの集団が彼の骨をトルコからイタリアのバリに移した。其処でニコラスは頼み事を叶え子供達のストッキングをプレゼントでいっぱいにする、パスクア エピファニアか御祖母さんと呼ばれる女神に取って代わった。御祖母さんはバリの神社から追い出されてしまい、其処はニコラス崇拝の中心になった。この集団のメンバーは12月6日のニコラスの死んだ日を記念した年に一回のページェントの間に御互いにプレゼント交換した。

The Nicholas cult spread north until it was adopted by German and Celtic pagans. These groups worshipped a pantheon led by Woden –their chief god and the father of Thor, Balder, and Tiw. Woden had a long, white beard and rode a horse through the heavens one evening each Autumn. When Nicholas merged with Woden, he shed his Mediterranean appearance, grew a beard, mounted a flying horse, rescheduled his flight for December, and donned heavy winter clothing.


In a bid for pagan adherents in Northern Europe, the Catholic Church adopted the Nicholas cult and taught that he did (and they should) distribute gifts on December 25th instead of December 6th.


In 1931, the Coca Cola Corporation contracted the Swedish commercial artist Haddon Sundblom to create a coke-drinking Santa. Sundblom modeled his Santa on his friend Lou Prentice, chosen for his cheerful, chubby face. The corporation insisted that Santa’s fur-trimmed suit be bright, Coca Cola red. And Santa was born – a blend of Christian crusader, pagan god, and commercial idol.

1931年、コカ.コーラ社はスエーデンのコマーシャル アーティスト、ハドン サンドボルムと契約しコカコーラを飲んでいるサンタを作り出した。サンドボルムは彼のサンタのモデルに友達のルー プレンティスを彼の陽気でポチャポチャした顔の為に選んだ。コカコーラはサンタの刈り込まれた毛皮のコートは鮮鋭なコカ.コーラの赤にするべきだと固執した。この様にキリスト教十字軍(此処ではアグレッシヴな改宗、布教活動の意味?)、異教徒の神、そして商業活動の偶像が混じり合ってサンタは誕生したのだった。

Many of the most popular Christmas customs – including Christmas trees, mistletoe, Christmas presents, and Santa Claus – are modern incarnations of pagan rituals.
Many are excitedly preparing for their Christmas celebrations and would prefer not knowing about the holiday’s real significance. If they do know the history, they often feel that their celebration has nothing to do with the holiday’s history and meaning.. and say... “We are just having fun enjoying our pretty Ashteroth tree and the lovely presents therein.

多くの最も人気のあるクリスマスの習慣………クリスマス ツリー、ミスルトー(やどりぎ)、クリスマスプレゼント、そしてサンタクロースを含めた……….は異教の宗教儀式の現代での具現化です。多くの人々は興奮してクリスマスの御祝いを準備していて、この祝日の本当の意味を知らない事を選んでいるかも知れない。若し彼等がこの歴史を知ってしまうと彼等は多くの場合このお祝いがこの祝日の歴史や意味と何の関係も無いと感じてしまうのだ。そして『私達は唯、奇麗な常緑樹と此処にある愛らしいプレゼントを楽しんでいるだけだよ!』と言うのだ。


Christmas (IPA: /krɪsməs/), also referred to as Christmas Day or Christmastide, is an annual holiday celebrated on December 25 that marks and honors the birth of Jesus of Nazareth.[2][3] The birth of Jesus, which is the basis for the anno Domini system of dating, is thought to have occurred between 7 and 2 BC.[4] December 25 is not thought to be Jesus' actual date of birth, and the date may have been chosen to correspond with either a Roman festival,[5] or with the winter solstice.[6]


Modern customs of the holiday include gift-giving, church celebrations, and the display of various decorations―including the Christmas tree, lights, mistletoe, nativity scenes and holly. Santa Claus (also referred to as Father Christmas, although the two figures have different origins) is a popular mythological figure often associated with bringing gifts at Christmas. Santa is generally believed to be the result of a syncretization between St. Nicholas of Myra and elements from pagan Nordic and Christian mythology, and his modern appearance is believed to have originated in 19th century media.


Christmas is celebrated throughout the Christian population, but is also celebrated by many non-Christians as a secular, cultural festival. The holiday is celebrated around the world. Because gift-giving and several other aspects of the holiday involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, Christmas has become a major event for many retailers.


ejnews:現在日本ではクリスマスやサンタの起源は良く知られていると思いますが、私がブログを始めて初めてのクリスマスですので、やはりクリスマスについて無視は出来ませんでした。どの宗教も国家と結び付くと変てこな事を始める様ですね。日本の景気は如何ですか?アメリカが風邪を引くと日本は肺炎になる?と言われていましたが状況は変わったのでしょうか?処で、米共和党のカールローブと深い繋がりのあるマイク コネルと言うコンピューター コンサルタントが自家用機の事故で亡くなりました。彼はこの8年間ほどアメリカではコンピューター関係の票の数の操作で強く疑われていて、4年前の大統領選挙時オハイオ州でのコンピューター投票違反を指揮していた中心人物として最近法廷か議会で証言するはずでしたが、此れでブッシュ政権は選挙違反については一安心と言う所です。非常に都合の良い事故ですね!警察からも飛行機がサボタージュされる可能性があるので飛行は当分止めた方が良いとの警告が彼に出ていたそうです。このニュース日本で報道されていますか?次回はイエスキリストと他の中近東の神様との比較の記事の翻訳を計画しています。



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Goldman Sachs cuts taxes to one percent by moving profits offshore
ゴールドマン サックス利益をオフショア(海外)に移動し税金を1%にする。

Published on 12-18-2008
Source: Raw Story

Bank takes $10 billion bailout, then cuts tax rate 33 percent

Say you got a ten billion dollar loan to shore up your finances, and you paid your employees $10.9 billion, and you raked in $2.3 billion for the year.

What would you say you owed in taxes? One percent?

That’s what you’d pay if you were Goldman Sachs, Inc. The high-flying brokerage ― and former home of Bush Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson ― has announced it’s paying just $14 million in taxes this year.

Last year, their tax bill was $6 billion, or 34.1 percent. That represents a year-over-year drop of 33.1 percent.


Tax accounting advisor Robert Willens told Bloomberg News the rate drop seems “a little extreme.”
税金会計のアドヴァイザー.ロバート ウイレンスはブルーンバーグニュースに“この減少率は一寸過激だ”と語った。


Texas Democrat Rep. Lloyd Doggett, who serves on the House Ways and Means Committee, said Goldman, like other banks, shifted income to countries with lower taxes to reduce its tax burden.
House Ways and Means委員会の一員、テキサス民主党下院議員ロイドドジェットは、ゴールドマンやその様な他の銀行は税金支払い責任を少なくする為に利益を税金の少ない国に移動したと語った。

“This problem is larger than Goldman Sachs,” Doggett told Bloomberg. “With the right hand out begging for bailout money, the left is hiding it offshore.”
“この問題はゴールドマン サックスだけに止まらない。支援金を乞う為に右手を出し左手で海外に其れを隠している。”とドジェット議員はブルーンバーグニュースに語った。

Paulson was CEO of Goldman Sachs until mid-2006, and earned $35 million at the firm in 2005. He drew a $16.4 million salary in 2006 ― even though he served as chief executive for just half the year.
ヘンリー ポールソンは2006年中旬までゴールドマン サックスのCEOで、2005年に3千5百万ドルをこの会社で稼ぎ、2006年にはCEOとして半年しか働かなかったにも拘らず千6百40万ドルをサラリーとして受け取った。

Ejnews: 信じられるこんな話!金融業界は詐欺師、泥棒の集まりだね!此れじゃあ経済が崩壊するのも無理ないですね!

Doctors warn new 'mad cow' strain could kill 350 Britons

By Daniel Bates
Last updated at 10:57 PM on 18th December 2008

Scientists fear a new wave of the human form of mad cow disease could claim hundreds more lives.

A victim of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease appears to have a different gene type from previous cases.

The Government's chief adviser on vCJD, Professor Chris Higgins, said the case, if confirmed, could mark the start of a second wave of deaths - up to 350.
政府のCJDの主任アドヴァイザー.クリス ヒギンズ教授は“このケースが確認されると350人に及ぶ新しい死の波の始まりを示すかもしれない。”と語った。

The number of Britons diagnosed so far with vCJD totals 167 since 1990. Experts believe it was transmitted from cattle infected with BSE.

All the victims belonged to a genetic type known as MM which is thought to be more vulnerable to the disease.

Roughly half of Britons have two M genes. The rest have one M and one V gene and thought to be more resistant.

However, tests suggest the new patient has an MV gene type. This has raised concerns that other MV victims may soon start to fall ill.
A new strain of the human form of 'mad cow disease' could kill more than twice as many people as its predecessor, it has been claimed.

The government's chief advisor on variant CJD warned that up to 350 people could be affected by the strain.

That would be more than double the 164 people who have already died of vCJD, which came from cows infected with BSE.


GM Is Likely to File for Bankruptcy, Report Says

By Caroline Salas
Bloomberg News
Wednesday, December 17, 2008; Page D04

'Deep Throat' Mark Felt Dies at 95
“ディープ スロート”マーク フェルト他界。95歳。

ejnews:ロバート レッドフォード、ダスティン ホフマン主演の映画All the President's Men (1976)にもなった話で有名です。ウオーターゲート事件当時、彼は連邦警察のアソシエイト ダイレクターで“ディープ スロート”としてワシントンポスト紙の記者ボブ ウッドワードとカール バーンスタイン記者を秘密裏に誘導し,ニクソン大統領のウオーターゲート事件への関係を示し最終的にニクソン辞任に発展させた人物です。

Paulson: 'Orderly' auto bankruptcy might be best

By DEB RIECHMANN – 1 hour ago
WASHINGTON (AP) ― The Bush administration is convinced the ailing economy could not withstand the demise of Detroit's Big Three and is looking at "orderly" bankruptcy to keep the automakers from collapsing.


追加:  今朝ブッシュがGMとクライスラーに$13.4 billion134億ドルの緊急ローンをする事を許可したとのニュースがありました。此れは金融機関を支援する為の7千億ドルから出されるとの事で、2月には40億ドルの追加があるそうです。1週間前に上院の南部共和党議員に拒否されたのですがやはり放置して置けないのでしょう。2週間以内に議会の反対がなければ緊急ローンは決定されるとの事です。



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Fed Refuses to Disclose Recipients of $2 Trillion

Published on 12-12-2008
Source: Bloomberg

The Federal Reserve refused a request by Bloomberg News to disclose the recipients of more than $2 trillion of emergency loans from U.S. taxpayers and the assets the central bank is accepting as collateral.

Bloomberg filed suit Nov. 7 under the U.S. Freedom of Information Act requesting details about the terms of 11 Fed lending programs, most created during the deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression.

The Fed responded Dec. 8, saying it’s allowed to withhold internal memos as well as information about trade secrets and commercial information.


Jim Rogers calls most big U.S. banks "bankrupt"
ジム ロジャーズは殆どの合衆国の大銀行は“破産”していると宣言している。


Source: Reuters - Jonathan Stempel

NEW YORK - Jim Rogers, one of the world's most prominent international investors, on Thursday called most of the largest U.S. banks "totally bankrupt," and said government efforts to fix the sector are wrongheaded.

Speaking by teleconference at the Reuters Investment Outlook 2009 Summit, the co-founder with George Soros of the Quantum Fund, said the government's $700 billion rescue package for the sector doesn't address how banks manage their balance sheets, and instead rewards weaker lenders with new capital.
ロイターズ投資アウトルック2009サミット テレコンファレンスでクオンタム ファンドの共同設立者ジョージ ソロズと共に発言した。政府の金融セクターに対する7千億ドルの援助パッケージは銀行がバランス シート(貸借対照表)をどの様に処理しているかについて注意を向けず、その代わりに脆弱な貸主を新しいキャピタルで報いている。

Dozens of banks have won infusions from the Troubled Asset Relief Program created in early October, just after the Sept 15 bankruptcy filing by Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc (LEHMQ.PK: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz). Some of the funds are being used for acquisitions.
Dozens of banks何ダースもの銀行(Dozens ofは多くの~と言う意味で良く使われる表現)

"Without giving specific names, most of the significant American banks, the larger banks, are bankrupt, totally bankrupt," said Rogers, who is now a private investor.

"What is outrageous economically and is outrageous morally is that normally in times like this, people who are competent and who saw it coming and who kept their powder dry go and take over the assets from the incompetent," he said. "What's happening this time is that the government is taking the assets from the competent people and giving them to the incompetent people and saying, now you can compete with the competent people. It is horrible economics."

Obama Adviser Robert Rubin Sued For Citi Ponzi Scheme
オバマのアドヴァイザーの ロバート ルービンはシティ グループ ポンジー詐欺で訴えられる。

Published on 12-11-2008
Source: NY Post

A new Citigroup scandal is engulfing Robert Rubin and his former disciple Chuck Prince for their roles in an alleged Ponzi-style scheme that's now choking world banking.

Ponzi-style scheme ポンジースタイルのたくらみ。利殖性の高い投資対象をでっち上げ,其れに最初に投資した人々が後から投資した人々の投資金を配当金として得る詐欺。Charles A.Ponziチャールズポンジーに由来する。

Director Rubin and ousted CEO Prince - and their lieutenants over the past five years - are named in a federal lawsuit for an alleged complex cover-up of toxic securities that spread across the globe, wiping out trillions of dollars in their destructive paths.
ダイレクター ルービンと追い出されたCEOだったプリンス、其れと過去5年間の彼等の手下達が、世界中に広がり、其の過程で何兆ドルもの損害を出した害悪な有価証券の複雑な隠蔽工作をしたと言われている連邦裁判所の起訴状で名前を上げられている。

Investor-plaintiffs in the suit accuse Citi management of overseeing the repackaging of unmarketable collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) that no one wanted - and then reselling them to Citi and hiding the poisonous exposure off the books in shell entities.

The lawsuit said that when the bottom fell out of the shaky assets in the past year, Citi's stock collapsed, wiping out more than $122 billion of shareholder value.

However, Rubin and other top insiders were able to keep Citi shares afloat until they could cash out more than $150 million for themselves in "suspicious" stock sales "calculated to maximize the personal benefits from undisclosed inside information," the lawsuit said.

Rubin cleared $30.6 million on his stock sales, while Prince got $26.5 million, former COO Robert Druskin got nearly $32 million and former Global Wealth Management unit chief Todd Thomson got $25.7 million, the suit said.

Citi denied the allegations and said it "will defend against it vigorously."

Former Nasdaq chairman arrested for fraud

Published on 12-11-2008
Source: MSNBC

Bernard Madoff, a longtime fixture on Wall Street, was arrested and charged on Thursday with allegedly running a $50 billion Ponzi scheme, U.S. authorities said.
木曜日、長年ワォールスとリートの顔だったバーナード マドフは500億ドルのポンジー詐欺をしていたとして逮捕告訴されたと合衆国の関係当局は語った。

The former chairman of the Nasdaq Stock Market who remains a member of Nasdaq OMX Group Inc's nominating committee, is best known as the founder of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC, the closely-held market-making firm he founded in 1960.

But the alleged fraud involved a hedge fund he ran from a separate floor of the building where his brokerage is based.

Madoff told senior employees of his firm on Wednesday that "it's all just one big lie" and that it was "basically, a giant Ponzi scheme," with estimated investor losses of about $50 billion, according to a criminal complaint against him.

A Ponzi scheme is a pyramid-type swindle in which very high returns are promised to early investors, who are paid off with money put up by later investors.

Prosecutors charged Madoff, 70, with a single count of securities fraud. They said he faces up to 5 years in prison and a fine of up to $5 million.











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Ouch: Harvard endowment loses $8 billion

John Byrne
Published: Thursday December 4, 2008


If you think your 401(k) is suffering, try losing $8,000,0000,000.

Harvard University's endowment plunged $8 billion, according to figures released in today's Wall Street Journal.

The loss itself -- representing a decline of 22 percent of the university's $36.9 billion endowment -- is more than the entire endowments of all but six colleges in the United States.

Harvard told the paper the actual loss could be even higher, once real estate and private equity are factored in.

The sinking value of college endowments is a one-two punch for soon-to-be college students and the institutions themselves. Colleges generally rely on their endowments to meet some of their annual operating expenses, and when endowments decline at the same time they need to be tapped for annual budgets, the drop accelerates. In good times, the endowment's gain can be used to pay expenses without a loss of principal funds.

Job losses could hit 3 million soon, index indicates

By Rex Nutting
Last update: 10:12 a.m. EST Dec. 8, 2008


WASHINGTON (MarketWatch) -- Job losses in the United States could easily reach 3 million by the middle of next year, said Gad Levanon, a senior economist for the Conference Board. The private research group said Monday that its employment trends index fell 1.6% in November and is down 13% in the past year. The index looks at eight labor market indicators to judge the path of employment. Since the recession began a year ago, the economy has lost 1.9 million jobs, including 533,000 in November alone. "The continued deterioration in the labor market will exert significant downward pressure on wages," Levanon said.
ワシントン( マーケットワッチ)コンファレンス ボードのシニア エコノミストである ガッド レヴァノン氏は来年中期までに米国失業者数は容易に300万人達するかもしれないと言った。この民間調査機関は月曜日“雇用傾向はインデックス11月に1,6%下降、過去1年13%減少した。”と発表した。このインデックスは8つの労働市場指標を調べ雇用の行方を判断している。1年前景気後退が始まってから経済は11月だけでも533,000人を含めて、160万人の雇用を失った。“労働市場の継続する悪化は賃金に対して減少的圧力として大きく影響するだろう。”とレヴァノン氏は語った。

Desperate NY Times Mortgages Building

Monday, December 8, 2008 8:46 PM Article Font Size

WASHINGTON ― The New York Times said Monday it will borrow as much as $225 million against its new headquarters building due to tightening credit and dwindling profits.

The Times owns 58 percent of the glistening 52-story tower on Eighth Avenue in Manhattan designed by architect Renzo Piano, with the rest owned by developer Forest City Ratner. The Times' portion of the building is not presently mortgaged.

The media company has retained real estate firm Cushman & Wakefield to act as agent to secure financing, the newspaper reported, citing its chief financial officer James Follo.
Times Company stock has lost more than half its value this year.




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The GM Genocide: Thousands of Indian Farmers are Committing Suicide After Using Genetically Modified Crops

オルガニック コンスーマー アソシエイション
The Daily Mail, UK, November 3, 2008

When Prince Charles claimed thousands of Indian farmers were killing themselves after using GM crops, he was branded a scaremonger. In fact, as this chilling dispatch reveals, it's even WORSE than he feared.


The children were inconsolable. Mute with shock and fighting back tears, they huddled beside their mother as friends and neighbours prepared their father's body for cremation on a blazing bonfire built on the cracked, barren fields near their home.


As flames consumed the corpse, Ganjanan, 12, and Kalpana, 14, faced a grim future. While Shankara Mandaukar had hoped his son and daughter would have a better life under India's economic boom, they now face working as slave labour for a few pence a day. Landless and homeless, they will be the lowest of the low. Shankara, respected farmer, loving husband and father, had taken his own life. Less than 24 hours earlier, facing the loss of his land due to debt, he drank a cupful of chemical insecticide.


Unable to pay back the equivalent of two years' earnings, he was in despair. He could see no way out.


There were still marks in the dust where he had writhed in agony. Other villagers looked on - they knew from experience that any intervention was pointless - as he lay doubled up on the ground, crying out in pain and vomiting.


Moaning, he crawled on to a bench outside his simple home 100 miles from Nagpur in central India. An hour later, he stopped making any noise. Then he stopped breathing. At 5pm on Sunday, the life of Shankara Mandaukar came to an end.


As neighbours gathered to pray outside the family home, Nirmala Mandaukar, 50, told how she rushed back from the fields to find her husband dead. 'He was a loving and caring man,' she said, weeping quietly.


'But he couldn't take any more. The mental anguish was too much. We have lost everything.'


Shankara's crop had failed - twice. Of course, famine and pestilence are part of India's ancient story.


But the death of this respected farmer has been blamed on something far more modern and sinister: genetically modified crops.


Shankara, like millions of other Indian farmers, had been promised previously unheard of harvests and income if he switched from farming with traditional seeds to planting GM seeds instead.


Distressed: Prince Charles has set up charity Bhumi Vardaan Foundation to address the plight of suicide farmers

悩んだプリンス チャールズは自殺した農民の苦境に対してブフミ バルダン財団を設立した。

Beguiled by the promise of future riches, he borrowed money in order to buy the GM seeds. But when the harvests failed, he was left with spiralling debts - and no income.


So Shankara became one of an estimated 125,000 farmers to take their own life as a result of the ruthless drive to use India as a testing ground for genetically modified crops.


The crisis, branded the 'GM Genocide' by campaigners, was highlighted recently when Prince Charles claimed that the issue of GM had become a 'global moral question' - and the time had come to end its unstoppable march.


Full Story:   http://www.mailonsunday.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1082...



Isikoff: Rove may testify in prosecutor's Attorneygate probe

David Edwards and Nick Juliano
Published: Thursday December 4, 2008

One of the biggest blockades to potential revelations regarding the Bush administration's politicization of the Justice Department has been the refusal of officials like Karl Rove and Harriet Miers to testify before Congressional committees investigating the matter.

ブッシュ政権の米司法省政治化の真実公開の可能性に対して、カールローブやハリエット マイヤー等の政府役員の議会委員会の調査に対する拒否が最も大きな障害になっている事の一つになっていた。

That stonewalling may soon end, now that an independent federal prosecutor is probing the dismissal of nine US Attorneys, among other facets of the Justice Department scandal.



Blackwater Plans Effort Against Piracy


Private security firm Blackwater Worldwide began holding meetings in London on Tuesday with potential clients for a new business venture -- protection from pirates.





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Native Blood: The Myth of Thanksgiving

Revolutionary Worker #883, November 24, 1996

Every schoolchild in the U.S. has been taught that the Pilgrims of the Plymouth Colony invited the local Indians to a major harvest feast after surviving their first bitter year in New England. But the real history of Thanksgiving is a story of the murder of indigenous people and the theft of their land by European colonialists--and of the ruthless ways of capitalism.

* * * * *
In mid-winter 1620 the English ship Mayflower landed on the North American coast, delivering 102 Puritan exiles. The original Native people of this stretch of shoreline had already been killed off. In 1614 a British expedition had landed there. When they left they took 24 Indians as slaves and left smallpox behind. Three years of plague wiped out between 90 and 96 percent of the inhabitants of the coast, destroying most villages completely.


The Puritans landed and built their colony called "the Plymouth Plantation" near the deserted ruins of the Indian village of Pawtuxet. They ate from abandoned cornfields grown wild. Only one Pawtuxet named Squanto had survived--he had spent the last years as a slave to the English and Spanish in Europe. Squanto spoke the colonists' language and taught them how to plant corn and how to catch fish until the first harvest. Squanto also helped the colonists negotiate a peace treaty with the nearby Wampanoag tribe, led by the chief Massasoit.


These were very lucky breaks for the colonists. The first Virginia settlement had been wiped out before they could establish themselves. Thanks to the good will of the Wampanoag, the Puritans not only survived their first year but had an alliance with the Wampanoags that would give them almost two decades of peace.


John Winthrop, a founder of the Massahusetts Bay colony considered this wave of illness and death to be a divine miracle. He wrote to a friend in England, "But for the natives in these parts, God hath so pursued them, as for 300 miles space the greatest part of them are swept away by smallpox which still continues among them. So as God hath thereby cleared our title to this place, those who remain in these parts, being in all not 50, have put themselves under our protection."
The deadly impact of European diseases and the good will of the Wampanoag allowed the Puritans to survive their first year.
In celebration of their good fortune, the colony's governor, William Bradford, declared a three-day feast of thanksgiving after that first harvest of 1621.

How the Puritans Stole the Land

But the peace that produced the Thanksgiving Feast of 1621 meant that the Puritans would have 15 years to establish a firm foothold on the coast. Until 1629 there were no more than 300 Puritans in New England, scattered in small and isolated settlements. But their survival inspired a wave of Puritan invasion that soon established growing Massachusetts towns north of Plymouth: Boston and Salem. For 10 years, boatloads of new settlers came.
And as the number of Europeans increased, they proved not nearly so generous as the Wampanoags.


On arrival, the Puritans discussed "who legally owns all this land." They had to decide this, not just because of Anglo-Saxon traditions, but because their particular way of farming was based on individual--not communal or tribal--ownership. This debate over land ownership reveals that bourgeois "rule of law" does not mean "protect the rights of the masses of people."


Some Puritans argued that the land belonged to the Indians. These forces were excommunicated and expelled. Massachusetts Governor Winthrop declared the Indians had not "subdued" the land, and therefore all uncultivated lands should, according to English Common Law, be considered "public domain." This meant they belonged to the king. In short, the colonists decided they did not need to consult the Indians when they seized new lands, they only had to consult the representative of the crown (meaning the local governor).


The Puritans embraced a line from Psalms 2:8. "Ask of me, and I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession." Since then, European settler states have similarly declared god their real estate agent: from the Boers seizing South Africa to the Zionists seizing Palestine.


Zionists シオニスト:オーストラリアのユダヤ人によって提唱されたパレスチナにユダヤ教徒の為の国家を築く民族運動。第二次世界大戦後イスラエルを建国した。然し、伝統的なユダヤ教徒によるとイスラエル建国以前にメシヤが出現しなかったのでイスラエルは地上でのユダヤ教徒の国家ではないと言う。

The European immigrants took land and enslaved Indians to help them farm it. By 1637 there were about 2,000 British settlers. They pushed out from the coast and decided to remove the inhabitants.


The Birth of"The American Way of War"

In the Connecticut Valley, the powerful Pequot tribe had not entered an alliance with the British (as had the Narragansett, the Wampanoag, and the Massachusetts peoples). At first they were far from the centers of colonization. Then, in 1633, the British stole the land where the city of Hartford now sits--land which the Pequot had recently conquered from another tribe. That same year two British slave raiders were killed. The colonists demanded that the Indians who killed the slavers be turned over. The Pequot refused.


The Puritan preachers said, from Romans 13:2, "Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation." The colonial governments gathered an armed force of 240 under the command of John Mason. They were joined by a thousand Narragansett warriors. The historian Francis Jennings writes: "Mason proposed to avoid attacking Pequot warriors which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is only one of the ways to destroy an enemy's will to fight. Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective."


The colonist army surrounded a fortified Pequot village on the Mystic River. At sunrise, as the inhabitants slept, the Puritan soldiers set the village on fire.


William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth, wrote: "Those that escaped the fire were slain with the sword; some hewed to pieces, others run through with their rapiers, so that they were quickly dispatched and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fire...horrible was the stink and scent thereof, but the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice, and they gave the prayers thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them."


Mason himself wrote: "It may be demanded...Should not Christians have more mercy and compassion? But...sometimes the Scripture declareth women and children must perish with their parents.... We had sufficient light from the word of God for our proceedings."


Three hundred and fifty years later the Puritan phrase "a shining city on the hill" became a favorite quote of Ronald Reagan's speechwriters.


Discovering theProfits of Slavery

This so-called "Pequot war" was a one-sided murder and slaving expedition. Over 180 captives were taken. After consulting the bible again, in Leviticus 24:44, the colonial authorities found justification to kill most of the Pequot men and enslave the captured women and their children. Only 500 Pequot remained alive and free. In 1975 the official number of Pequot living in Connecticut was 21.


Some of the war captives were given to the Narragansett and Massachusetts allies of the British. Even before the arrival of Europeans, Native peoples of North America had widely practiced taking war captives from other tribes as hostages and slaves.


The remaining captives were sold to British plantation colonies in the West Indies to be worked to death in a new form of slavery that served the emerging capitalist world market. And with that, the merchants of Boston made a historic discovery: the profits they made from the sale of human beings virtually paid for the cost of seizing them.


One account says that enslaving Indians quickly became a "mania with speculators." These early merchant capitalists of Massachusetts started to make genocide pay for itself. The slave trade, first in captured Indians and soon in kidnapped Africans, quickly became a backbone of New England merchant capitalism.


Thanksgiving in theManhattan Colony

In 1641 the Dutch governor Kieft of Manhattan offered the first "scalp bounty"--his government paid money for the scalp of each Indian brought to them. A couple years later, Kieft ordered the massacre of the Wappingers, a friendly tribe. Eighty were killed and their severed heads were kicked like soccer balls down the streets of Manhattan. One captive was castrated, skinned alive and forced to eat his own flesh while the Dutch governor watched and laughed. Then Kieft hired the notorious Underhill who had commanded in the Pequot war to carry out a similar massacre near Stamford, Connecticut. The village was set fire, and 500 Indian residents were put to the sword.


A day of thanksgiving was proclaimed in the churches of Manhattan. As we will see, the European colonists declared Thanksgiving Days to celebrate mass murder more often than they did for harvest and friendship.


The Conquest of New England

By the 1670s there were about 30,000 to 40,000 white inhabitants in the United New England Colonies--6,000 to 8,000 able to bear arms. With the Pequot destroyed, the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonists turned on the Wampanoag, the tribe that had saved them in 1620 and probably joined them for the original Thanksgiving Day.

In 1675 a Christian Wampanoag was killed while spying for the Puritans. The Plymouth authorities arrested and executed three Wampanoag without consulting the tribal chief, King Philip.


As Mao Tsetung says: "Where there is oppression there is resistance." The Wampanoag went to war.


The Indians applied some military lessons they had learned: they waged a guerrilla war which overran isolated European settlements and were often able to inflict casualties on the Puritan soldiers. The colonists again attacked and massacred the main Indian populations.


When this war ended, 600 European men, one-eleventh of the adult men of the New England Colonies, had been killed in battle. Hundreds of homes and 13 settlements had been wiped out. But the colonists won.


In their victory, the settlers launched an all-out genocide against the remaining Native people. The Massachusetts government offered 20 shillings bounty for every Indian scalp, and 40 shillings for every prisoner who could be sold into slavery. Soldiers were allowed to enslave any Indian woman or child under 14 they could capture. The "Praying Indians" who had converted to Christianity and fought on the side of the European troops were accused of shooting into the treetops during battles with "hostiles." They were enslaved or killed. Other "peaceful" Indians of Dartmouth and Dover were invited to negotiate or seek refuge at trading posts--and were sold onto slave ships.


It is not known how many Indians were sold into slavery, but in this campaign, 500 enslaved Indians were shipped from Plymouth alone. Of the 12,000 Indians in the surrounding tribes, probably about half died from battle, massacre and starvation.


After King Philip's War, there were almost no Indians left free in the northern British colonies. A colonist wrote from Manhattan's New York colony: "There is now but few Indians upon the island and those few no ways hurtful. It is to be admired how strangely they have decreased by the hand of God, since the English first settled in these parts."


In Massachusetts, the colonists declared a "day of public thanksgiving" in 1676, saying, "there now scarce remains a name or family of them [the Indians] but are either slain, captivated or fled."


Fifty-five years after the original Thanksgiving Day, the Puritans had destroyed the generous Wampanoag and all other neighboring tribes. The Wampanoag chief King Philip was beheaded. His head was stuck on a pole in Plymouth, where the skull still hung on display 24 years later.


The descendants of these Native peoples are found wherever the Puritan merchant capitalists found markets for slaves: the West Indies, the Azures, Algiers, Spain and England. The grandson of Massasoit, the Pilgrim's original protector, was sold into slavery in Bermuda.

Runaways and Rebels

But even the destruction of Indian tribal life and the enslavement of survivors brought no peace. Indians continued to resist in every available way. Their oppressors lived in terror of a revolt. And they searched for ways to end the resistance. The historian MacLeod writes: "The first `reservations' were designed for the `wild' Irish of Ulster in 1609. And the first Indian reservation agent in America, Gookin of Massachusetts, like many other American immigrants had seen service in Ireland under Cromwell."



The enslaved Indians refused to work and ran away. The Massachusetts government tried to control runaways by marking enslaved Indians: brands were burnt into their skin, and symbols were tattooed into their foreheads and cheeks.


A Massachusetts law of 1695 gave colonists permission to kill Indians at will, declaring it was "lawful for any person, whether English or Indian, that shall find any Indians traveling or skulking in any of the towns or roads (within specified limits), to command them under their guard and examination, or to kill them as they may or can."



The northern colonists enacted more and more laws for controlling the people. A law in Albany forbade any African or Indian slave from driving a cart within the city. Curfews were set up; Africans and Indians were forbidden to have evening get-togethers. On Block Island, Indians were given 10 lashes for being out after nine o'clock. In 1692 Massachusetts made it a serious crime for any white person to marry an African, an Indian or a mulatto. In 1706 they tried to stop the importation of Indian slaves from other colonies, fearing a slave revolt.



Looking at this history raises a question: Why should anyone celebrate the survival of the earliest Puritans with a Thanksgiving Day? Certainly the Native peoples of those times had no reason to celebrate.


A little known fact: Squanto, the so-called "hero" of the original Thanksgiving Day, was executed by the Indians for his treacheries.


But the ruling powers of the United States organized people to celebrate Thanksgiving Day because it is in their interest. That's why they created it. The first national celebration of Thanksgiving was called for by George Washington. And the celebration was made a regular legal holiday later by Abraham Lincoln during the civil war (right as he sent troops to suppress the Sioux of Minnesota).


Washington and Lincoln were two presidents deeply involved in trying to forge a unified bourgeois nation-state out of the European settlers in the United States. And the Thanksgiving story was a useful myth in their efforts at U.S. nation-building. It celebrates the "bounty of the American way of life," while covering up the brutal nature of this society.

This article is posted in English and Spanish on Revolutionary Worker Online

ejnews:この感謝祭についての記事は“革命的労働者オンライン”と言うサイトの記事です。ejnewsの感謝祭の歴史観と上記の記事の歴史観が同一と言う事でははありません。然し.....................................“歴史は勝者が書く”と言うのは有名な言葉ですが、George Orwell ジョージオーウェルはこう言い残しています。
Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.



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