C.I.A. Spent Millions to Support
Japanese Right in 50's and 60's


Published: October 9, 1994

WASHINGTON, Oct. 8— In a major covert operation of the cold war, the Central Intelligence Agency spent millions of dollars to support the conservative party that dominated Japan's politics for a generation.

The C.I.A. gave money to the Liberal Democratic Party and its members in the 1950's and the 1960's, to gather intelligence on Japan, make the country a bulwark against Communism in Asia and undermine the Japanese left, said retired intelligence officials and former diplomats. Since then, the C.I.A. has dropped its covert financial aid and focused instead on gathering inside information on Japan's party politics and positions in trade and treaty talks, retired intelligence officers said.

The Liberal Democrats' 38 years of one-party governance ended last year when they fell from power after a series of corruption cases -- many involving secret cash contributions. Still the largest party in Japan's parliament, they formed an awkward coalition in June with their old cold war enemies, the Socialists -- the party that the C.I.A.'s aid aimed in part to undermine.

Though the C.I.A.'s financial role in Japanese politics has long been suspected by historians and journalists, the Liberal Democrats have always denied it existed, and the breadth and depth of the support has never been detailed publicly. Disclosure of the covert aid could open old wounds and harm the Liberal Democrats' credibility as an independent voice for Japanese interests. The subject of spying between allies has always been sensitive.

The C.I.A. did not respond to an inquiry. In Tokyo, Katsuya Muraguchi, director of the Liberal Democratic Party's management bureau, said he had never heard of any payments.
米中央情報局は問い合わせには答えなかった。Muraguchi Katsuya(村口かつや?此の人は特定できませんでした)、自民党の党管理部長は支払いについて聞いた事は全く無かったと語っている。

"This story reveals the intimate role that Americans at official and private levels played in promoting structured corruption and one-party conservative democracy in post-war Japan, and that's new," said John Dower, a leading Japan scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "We look at the L.D.P. and say it's corrupt and it's unfortunate to have a one-party democracy. But we have played a role in creating that misshapen structure."

Bits and pieces of the story are revealed in United States Government records slowly being declassified. A State Department document in the National Archives describes a secret meeting in a Tokyo hotel at which Eisaku Sato, a former Prime Minister of Japan, sought under-the-table contributions from the United States for the 1958 parliamentary election. A newly declassified C.I.A. history also discusses covert support sent that year.

But the full story remains hidden. It was pieced together through interviews with surviving participants, many well past 80 years old, and Government officials who described still-classified State Department documents explicitly confirming the Kennedy Administration's secret aid to the Liberal Democrats in the early 1960's.

The law requires the Government to publish, after 30 years, "all records needed to provide a comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions." Some State Department and C.I.A. officials say the Kennedy-era documents should stay secret forever, for fear they might disrupt Japan's coalition government or embarrass the United States. Other State Department officials say the law demands that the documents be unsealed.

A Secret Operation That Succeeded

The C.I.A.'s help for Japanese conservatives resembled other cold war operations, like secret support for Italy's Christian Democrats. But it remained secret -- in part, because it succeeded. The Liberal Democrats thwarted their Socialist opponents, maintained their one-party rule, forged close ties with Washington and fought off public opposition to the United States' maintaining military bases throughout Japan.

One retired C.I.A. official involved in the payments said, "That is the heart of darkness and I'm not comfortable talking about it, because it worked." Others confirmed the covert support.

"We financed them," said Alfred C. Ulmer Jr., who ran the C.I.A.'s Far East operations from 1955 to 1958. "We depended on the L.D.P. for information." He said the C.I.A. had used the payments both to support the party and to recruit informers within it from its earliest days.
1955年~1958年間の米中央情報局極東作戦を指揮したアルフレッドC.ウルマーJr氏 は『我々は自由民主党に資金的援助した。(自民党に資金を与えた。)我々は情報を自由民主党に頼っていた。』と語った。米中央情報局は自由民主党の創成期から自由民主党支援と自由民主党内での情報提供者をリクルートする為に使用したと彼は語った。

By the early 1960's, the payments to the party and its politicians were "so established and so routine" that they were a fundamental, if highly secret, part of American foreign policy toward Japan, said Roger Hilsman, head of the State Department's intelligence bureau in the Kennedy Administration.
『1960年代初期になった頃は自由民主党と其の政治家への資金援助は完全に確立されていて又常に行われていた。其れは最も重要で非常に隠密で日本に対する米国の対外政策の一部であった。』とケネディー政権の政府情報部の部長だったロジャー ヒルズマン氏は語った。

"The principle was certainly acceptable to me," said U. Alexis Johnson, United States Ambassador to Japan from 1966 to 1969. "We were financing a party on our side." He said the payments continued after he left Japan in 1969 to become a senior State Department official.
『自由民主党への秘密資金援助と言う基本政策は勿論私にとっては受け入れられる。』と1966年~1969年間の駐日米大使だったU.アレクシス ジョーンズ氏は語った。『我々は政党を我々の側につく様に資金援助していた。』彼が連邦政府要員になる為日本を離れた1969年以降も自由民主党への資金援助は続いていたと彼は語った。

The C.I.A. supported the party and established relations with many promising young men in the Japanese Government in the 1950's and 1960's. Some are today among the elder statesmen of Japanese politics.

Masaru Gotoda, a respected Liberal Democratic Party leader who entered parliament in the 1970's and who recently served as Justice Minister, acknowledged these contacts.
1970年代に国会議員となり又最近法務大臣となった尊敬されている自由民主党の指導者Masaru Gotouda(時代的に見て後藤田正晴だと思います)はこれ等の米中央情報局との接触を認めている。

"I had a deep relationship with the C.I.A.," he said in an interview, referring to his years as a senior official in intelligence activities in the 1950's and 1960's. "I went to their headquarters. But there was nobody in an authentic Government organization who received financial aid." He would not be more explicit.

"Those C.I.A. people who were stationed in the embassy with legitimate status were fine," he said. "But there were also covert people. We did not really know all the activities they were conducting. Because they were from a friendly nation, we did not investigate deeply." Recruitment Was 'Sophisticated'

The recruitment of Japanese conservatives in the 1950's and 1960's was "a pretty sophisticated business," said one C.I.A. officer. "Quite a number of our officers were in touch with the L.D.P. This was done on a seat-by-seat basis" in the Japanese parliament. A second C.I.A. officer said the agency's contacts had included members of the Japanese cabinet.

As the C.I.A. supported the Liberal Democrats, it undermined their opponents. It infiltrated the Japan Socialist Party, which it suspected was receiving secret financial support from Moscow, and placed agents in youth groups, student groups and labor groups, former C.I.A. officers said.

Obstructing the Japanese opposition "was the most important thing we could do," one said.

The covert aid apparently ended in the early 1970's, when growing frictions over trade began to strain relations between the United States and Japan, and the growing wealth of Japan made the agency question the point of supporting politicians.

"By that time, they were self-financing," a former senior intelligence official said. But the agency used its longstanding relationships to establish a more traditional espionage operation in Japan.

"We had penetrations of all the cabinet agencies," said a C.I.A. officer based in Tokyo in the late 1970's and early 1980's. He said the agency also recruited a close aide to a prime minister and had such good contacts in the agriculture ministry that it knew beforehand what Japan would say in trade talks. "We knew the fallback positions" in talks over beef and citrus imports, he said. "We knew when the Japanese delegation would walk out."

Useful though it may have been, the inside information rarely gave American trade negotiators the upper hand with the Japanese.

The Reverse Course' Of American Policy

The support for the Liberal Democrats had its origins in what some historians call "the reverse course" of American policy toward Japan after World War II.

From 1945 to 1948, the American forces who occupied Japan purged the Government of the right-wing militarists who had led Japan into war. But by 1949, things had changed. China went Communist. The Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. Washington was fighting Communism, not ferreting out rightists.

The American occupation forces freed accused war criminals like Nobusuke Kishi, later Japan's Prime Minister. Some of the rehabilitated politicians had close contacts with organized crime groups, known as yakuza. So did Yoshio Kodama, a political fixer and later a major C.I.A. contact in Japan who worked behind the scenes to finance the conservatives.

These politicians also drew support from a group of retired diplomats, businessmen and veterans of the Office of Strategic Services, the World War II precursor of the C.I.A. The group's leader was Eugene Dooman, an old Japan hand who quit the State Department in 1945 to promote "the reverse course."
この様な政治家達は引退した外交官、ビジネスマン、そして後に米中央情報局となる第二次大戦中の先駆団体OSSの古参諜報員からも支援を引き出した。此のグループの指導者は古参の日本対策専門家で1945年に“政策の逆転”をプロモートする為に国務省を辞職したユージーン ドゥーマンだった。

During the Korean War, the Dooman group pulled off an audacious covert operation, bankrolled by the C.I.A.
朝鮮動乱期にはドゥーマン グループは米中央情報局資金援助による大胆な秘密作戦を決行した。

Japanese conservatives needed money. The American military needed tungsten, a scarce strategic metal used for hardening missiles. "Somebody had the idea: Let's kill two birds with one stone," said John Howley, a New York lawyer and O.S.S. veteran who helped arrange the transaction but said he was unaware of the C.I.A.'s role in it.
日本の保守派は資金が必要で米軍は希少な戦略的に重要なミサイルを強化するタングステンが必要だった。『誰かが考え付いたアイデア:一石二鳥!』とジョン ハウリーは言った。彼はニューヨークの弁護士、OSSの元部員(ヴェテラン)で此の商談を御膳立てしたが米中央情報局の関与については知らなかったと言っている。

So the Dooman group smuggled tons of tungsten from Japanese military officers' caches into the United States and sold it to the Pentagon for $10 million. The smugglers included Mr. Kodama and Kay Sugahara, a Japanese-American recruited by the O.S.S. from a internment camp in California during World War II.
と言う事で、ドゥーマン グループは旧日本軍将校の武器貯蔵庫から何トンものタングステンを米国に密輸し米国防省に1千万ドルで売りつけた。此の密売人には児玉と第二次大戦中にカリフォルニア州の日本人収容所からOSSにリクルートされた日系米国人ケイ菅原が含まれていた。

The files of the late Mr. Sugahara -- researched by the late Howard Schonberger, a University of Maine professor writing a book nearly completed when he died in 1991 -- described the operation in detail. They say the C.I.A. provided $2.8 million in financing for the tungsten operation, which reaped more than $2 million in profits for the Dooman group.
メイン大学の教授ハワード ショーンバーガー氏が1991年に亡くなる前に殆ど完成させていた著書の故ケイ菅原氏の記録は其の作戦を仔細に渡って書き残している。米中央情報局は2百8十万ドル(当時の円ドル換算)をタングステン密輸作戦に注ぎ込み、此の支出は2百万ドル以上の利益をドゥーマン グループにもたらしたと彼等(ショーンバーガー教授とケイ菅原氏)は語っている。

The group pumped the proceeds into the campaigns of conservatives during Japan's first post-occupation elections in 1953, Mr. Howley said in an interview. "We had learned in O.S.S., to accomplish a purpose, you had to put the right money in the right hands."
ドゥーマン グループはタングステン密輸の利益を1953年の米占領終了直後の選挙に投入したとハウリー氏はインタヴューで語った。『我々は目的を達成する為には充分な資金を目的に適った人物や団体に渡さなければならないとO.S.S.で学んだ。』

By 1953, with the American occupation over and the reverse course well under way, the C.I.A. began working with warring conservative factions in Japan. In 1955, these factions merged to form the Liberal Democratic Party.
The fact that money was available from the United States soon was known at the highest levels of the Japanese Government.

On July 29, 1958, Douglas MacArthur 2d, the general's nephew, who was then United States Ambassador in Tokyo, wrote to the State Department that Eisaku Sato, the Finance Minister, had asked the United States Embassy for money. Mr. Sato was Prime Minister of Japan from 1964 to 1972 and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1974.
1958年、7月29日、ダグラス マッカーサー2世、米占領軍の将軍マッカーサーの甥で東京駐在の対日米大使は財務大臣の佐藤栄作が米大使館に資金援助を要請したと国務省宛の手紙に書き残している。佐藤栄作は1964年~1972年間日本の首相で1974年にはノーベル平和賞を受賞している。

Ambassador MacArthur wrote that such requests from the Government of Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi were nothing new. "Eisaku Sato, Kishi's brother, has tried to put the bite on us for financial help in fighting Communism," his letter said. "This did not come as a surprise to us, since he suggested the same general idea last year."

Mr. Sato was worried, an accompanying memo explained, because a secret slush fund established by Japanese companies to aid the L.D.P. was drained.

"Mr. Sato asked if it would not be possible for the United States to supply financial funds to aid the conservative forces in this constant struggle against Communism," the memo said. While it is unclear whether Mr. Sato's request was granted directly, a decision to finance the 1958 election campaign was discussed and approved by senior national security officials, according to recently declassified C.I.A. documents and former intelligence officers.

In an interview, Mr. MacArthur said the Socialists in Japan had their own secret funds from Moscow, a charge the left denied.

"The Socialist Party in Japan was a direct satellite of Moscow" in those years, he said. "If Japan went Communist it was difficult to see how the rest of Asia would not follow suit. Japan assumed an importance of extraordinary magnitude because there was no other place in Asia from which to project American power."

A Close Call In 1976

In 1976, the secret payments were almost uncovered.

A United States Senate subcommittee discovered that Lockheed Corp., seeking lucrative aircraft contracts, had paid $12 million in bribes to Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and the Liberal Democrats. The conduit was Mr. Kodama -- political fixer, tungsten smuggler and C.I.A. contact.

Then a retired C.I.A. officer living in Hawaii phoned in a startling tip.

"It's much, much deeper than just Lockheed," Jerome Levinson, the panel's staff director, recalls the C.I.A. man saying. "If you really want to understand Japan, you have to go back to the formation of the L.D.P. and our involvement in it."
『この事件はロッキードよりもズットズット奥が深い。』と此の元米中央情報局員は語ったと、小委員会の事務員長ジェローム レヴィンソン氏は回想している。『若し本当に日本を理解したいなら自由民主党の結党とそして我々(米政府と米中央情報局)の自民党結党時の関与にまで遡ら無ければならない。』

Mr. Levinson said in an interview that his superiors rejected his request to pursue the matter.

"This was one of the most profound secrets of our foreign policy," he said. "This was the one aspect of our investigation that was put on hold. We got to Japan, and it really all just shut down."

ejnews: 此の記事は1994年のニューヨーク タイムズに掲載されたもので、かなり古い記事で、日本でも良く知られている事実と思います。此の記事で御分かり頂けると思いますが自由民主党はこの様な過去(現在も続いている可能性も充分考えられると思いませんか?)の有る政党ですから最近の民主党議員に対する検察庁の態度等も自民党との関係を考えると何と無く怪しいと思いませんか?米中央情報局は自民党、社会党だけでなく日本社会の至る所にスパイを潜入させ、又個人や団体への資金援助によって日本政府の政策が米政府の利益に繋がるように操っていた(いる?)のでしょうね。そう言えばナンとかカンとか民営化とか言う米政府(米金融資本!?)の利益になりそうな政策を推進した何か変テコな首相もいましたねえ!?
   Ciao !

にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ


Secret of the Lusitania: Arms find challenges Allied claims it was solely a passenger ship

By Sam Greenhill
Last updated at 1:16 AM on 20th December 2008

Her sinking with the loss of almost 1,200 lives caused such outrage that it propelled the U.S. into the First World War.


But now divers have revealed a dark secret about the cargo carried by the Lusitania on its final journey in May 1915.


Munitions they found in the hold suggest that the Germans had been right all along in claiming the ship was carrying war materials and was a legitimate military target.


The Cunard vessel, steaming from New York to Liverpool, was sunk eight miles off the Irish coast by a U-boat.


Maintaining that the Lusitania was solely a passenger vessel, the British quickly accused the 'Pirate Hun' of slaughtering civilians.


'Pirate Hun' フン族の海賊: 英国、フランス、米国などでは特に第一次大戦当時、歴史的にドイツはフン族のアッチラに征服された事から蛮行を行うフン族として形容された。敵国民を非人間化し戦争での殺人行為を正当化する手段。日本でも太平洋戦争中“鬼畜米英”と言う言葉がありましたよね!外国人の事を軽蔑非難する政治家は絶対信用しない様に!

The disaster was used to whip up anti-German anger, especially in the U.S., where 128 of the 1,198 victims came from.


A hundred of the dead were children, many of them under two.


Robert Lansing, the U.S. secretary of state, later wrote that the sinking gave him the 'conviction we would ultimately become the ally of Britain'.


Americans were even told, falsely, that German children were given a day off school to celebrate the sinking of the Lusitania.


The disaster inspired a multitude of recruitment posters demanding vengeance for the victims.


One, famously showing a young mother slipping below the waves with her baby, carried the simple slogan 'Enlist'.


Two years later, the Americans joined the Allies as an associated power - a decision that turned the war decisively against Germany.


The diving team estimates that around four million rounds of U.S.-manufactured Remington .303 bullets lie in the Lusitania's hold at a depth of 300ft.


The Germans had insisted the Lusitania - the fastest liner in the North Atlantic - was being used as a weapons ship to break the blockade Berlin had been trying to impose around Britain since the outbreak of hostilities in August 1914.


Winston Churchill, who was first Lord of the Admiralty and has long been suspected of knowing more about the circumstances of the attack than he let on in public, wrote in a confidential letter shortly before the sinking that some German submarine attacks were to be welcomed.

この攻撃について彼が一般に漏らしていた以上の事を知っていたと長い間疑われていた海軍大臣であったウインストン チャーチルは、この沈没事件直前に個人的な手紙に、ドイツの潜水艦による攻撃は歓迎できる事だと書き残していた。

He said: 'It is most important to attract neutral shipping to our shores, in the hope especially of embroiling the U.S. with Germany.


'For our part we want the traffic - the more the better and if some of it gets into trouble, better still.'


Hampton Sides, a writer with Men's Vogue in the U.S., witnessed the divers' discovery.

メンズヴォーグ誌の記者ハンプトン サイヅスはダイヴァー達の発見を目撃した。

He said: 'They are bullets that were expressly manufactured to kill Germans in World War I - bullets that British officials in Whitehall, and American officials in Washington, have long denied were aboard the Lusitania.'


The discovery may help explain why the 787ft Lusitania sank within 18 minutes of a single German torpedo slamming into its hull.


Some of the 764 survivors reported a second explosion which might have been munitions going off.


Gregg Bemis, an American businessman who owns the rights to the wreck and is funding its exploration, said: 'Those four million rounds of .303s were not just some private hunter's stash.


'Now that we've found it, the British can't deny any more that there was ammunition on board. That raises the question of what else was on board.


'There were literally tons and tons of stuff stored in unrefrigerated cargo holds that were dubiously marked cheese, butter and oysters.


'I've always felt there were some significant high explosives in the holds - shells, powder, gun cotton - that were set off by the torpedo and the inflow of water. That's what sank the ship.'


Mr Bemis is planning to commission further dives next year in a full-scale forensic examination of the wreck off County Cork.


Ejnews: ルシタニア号の沈没はこの様にウインストンチャーチルによって仕組まれた罠だったようです。当時チャーチルは海軍大臣でトルコ領域のダルダネル海峡を英仏露同盟国側の安全なロシアへの補給路とする為英国でダルダネル作戦、オーストラリア、ニュージーランド、カナダではガリポリ作戦として知られているガリポリ半島上陸作戦を実施したのですが、オットマントルコ軍指揮官Mustafa Kemal Atatürkムスタファケマルアタチュルク後のトルコ共和国の建国の父の奮闘もあり4万人以上の死者、殆ど10万人に近い負傷者を出し大失敗。この責任を取りチャーチルは海軍大臣を辞任しなくてはならなくなったのですが、彼の軍歴を見ると有能な軍人としての評判は何だかアヤフヤで、1889年の現在のパキスタンのマルカンドのマムンド渓谷での部族パシツーンに対する作戦では負傷した将校を置き去りにして撤退を余儀なくされ、其の将校達はチャーチルの目前でナイフで切り刻まれ死んでしまったと言う事です。えっ?如何してそんな事知られてるんだって!?チャーチルは従軍中に種々の英国新聞雑誌に記事を書き原稿料を貰っていた様で、このパシツーン相手の戦闘もThe Story of the Malakand Field Force.と言う本に書いていて600ポンドの原稿料を貰っているのです。
彼は1953年のイランのモハマッド モザデク首相に対するクーデターの最初の原因を作った張本人として非難されています。
モハマッドモザデク首相は米合衆国を手本としていた民主主義者でしたが、其れまでアングロ-イラニアン-オイル(現在の石油会社ブリティッシュ-ペトロリウム、所謂、BP)と言う英国企業に吸い取られていた石油利益をイラン国民に平等に分配する為、アングロ-イラニアン オイルを国有化する政策を決定したのです。其れまで英国はアングロ-イラニアン オイルからの石油に頼っていたのですから大慌て!然し、当時既に英国にはイランに軍隊を送るだけの力は無く、仕方なくアメリカに援助(対モザデククーデター)を頼んだのです、然しトルーマン大統領はアメリカ人の中近東情勢についての無知を理由に拒否したのですが、次の大統領アイゼンハウアーになって中央情報局のエイジャックス作戦(この作戦をイランで指揮した米中央情報局員はシオドア ルーズヴェルト大統領の孫、カーミットルーズヴェルトで、この事については又の機会で取り上げてみたいと思います)でクーデターを成功させ、リザ シャーパーレヴィ皇帝の政権を作り出すことになったのです。このリザ シャーパーレヴィ皇帝はサヴァックと言う残忍な国家秘密警察を使い圧政を布き1979年のホメイニ革命を招く原因となったのです。若しモザデク首相のクーデターが無かったら現在中近東諸国は民主化した国々になっていた可能性があり9/11テロも無かった可能性があるのです。
原因不明の船の沈没がアメリカの参戦に使われた例は、スペインアメリカ戦争の発端となった戦艦USSメインのキューバのハバナ湾での爆破沈没があります。  当時米政府はスペイン海軍の機雷によって戦艦メインは沈没したとしてスペインに宣戦布告、老いて衰弱していた老帝国スペインには勝ち目は無くキューバ,フィリピン、プエルトリコ、グアム、等をアメリカに手放すと言うことになったのですが(この話も別の機会に)最近の潜水調査では船の内部から爆発が起こっていて米政府の機雷説は如何もでっち上げの様な感じになっています。当然、戦艦メインの沈没事件は大々的に対スペイン宣戦布告に利用されました。興味深い話ですが、当時米海軍副長官シオドアルーズヴェルト(後の大統領)は『メインの沈没の原因については我々は将来も確定出来ないだろう』と言う発言をしています。如何言う意味だったでしょうね?????


Aristotle アリストテレス
"The real difference between democracy and oligarchy is poverty and wealth. Wherever men rule by reason of their wealth, whether they be few or many, that is an oligarchy, and where the poor rule, that is democracy".




にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ


Warsaw Ghetto
ワルシャワ ゲットー

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos located in the territory of General Government during the Second World War. The
Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General
Hans Frank on October 16, 1940. At this time, the population of the
Ghetto was estimated to be 440,000 people, about 38% of the
population of Warsaw. However, the size of the Ghetto was about 4.5% of the size of Warsaw. Nazis then closed the Warsaw Ghetto from the
outside world on November 16, 1940, building a wall with armed guards.

 ワルシャワゲットーは第二次大戦中独逸のポーランド支配総轄政府内に存在した最大のユダヤ人ゲットーだった。ワルシャワゲットーは独逸の知事ハンス フランクにより1940年19月16日に設立された。当時ゲットーの人口は440000人と見積もられワルシャワの人口の約33%であった。然し、ゲットーの面積はワルシャワの面積の約4,5%であった。ナチ政権は1940年11月16日、ゲットーを外界から封鎖し壁を建設し警備兵を配置した。
During the next year and a half, thousands of the Polish Jews as well as some Romani people from smaller cities and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto, while diseases (especially typhus) and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number. Average food rations in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw were limited to 184 kcal, compared to 669 kcal for gentile Poles and 2,614 kcal for Germans.


Unemployment was a major problem in the ghetto. Illegal workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold illegally on the outside and raw goods were smuggled in often by children. Hundreds of four to five year old Jewish children went across en masse to the "Aryan side", sometimes several times a day, smuggling food into the ghettos, returning with goods that often weighed more than they did. Smuggling was often the only source of subsistence for Ghetto inhabitants, who would otherwise have died of starvation. Despite the grave hardships, life in the Warsaw Ghetto was rich with educational and cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations. Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of a soup kitchen. There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a symphony orchestra. The life in the ghetto was chronicled by the Oyneg Shabbos group.

非雇用率はゲットーでの最大の問題だった。不法に外部に販売する製品を製造する非合法の工場が作られ原料は子供達によって密輸入された。毎日、時には一日数回も、何百人もの4歳~5歳のユダヤ人の子供達が迷宮のような迷路を通って“アーリアン(白人)側”に渡り食料をゲットー内に密輸し、多くの場合、彼等の体重よりも多い品物を持ち帰ったのだった。密輸は多くの場合、其れ無しには餓死してしまったゲットー住人の食料を得るの唯一つの方法であった。この様な信じられない様な困難にも拘らずワルシャワゲットーの生活は地下組織に主催された教育活動、文化活動で豊かであった。学校の他にも、病院、炊き出し(パブリックスープキッチン、)孤児院、避難民センター、レクリエーション設備等が設立された。或る学校は非合法であったがスープキッチンを装って経営されていた。秘密の図書館、子供達の為の教室、そして交響楽団まで存在していた。ゲットーでの生活はOyneg Shabbosグループによって年代的に記録されている。

Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz to the Treblinka extermination camp during the Gross-aktion Warschau, part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard. Between Tisha B'Av (July 23) and Yom Kippur (September 21) of 1942, about 254,000 Ghetto residents (or at least 300,000 by different accounts)[1] were sent to Treblinka and murdered there.[2] In 1942 Polish resistance officer Jan Karski reported to the Western governments on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight.[1]

全国規模のライハルト作戦の一部としてのGross-aktion Warschauの期間、ナチ政権がゲットーのUmschlagplatzからトレブリンカ大量殺戮強制収容所に住人の大量移住を開始する前に、既に十万人以上のゲットー住人が意味無く起こる殺人や頻発する疫病や飢餓で死亡していた。1942年Tisha B'Avティシャバヴ (July 23)7月23日 からYom Kippur ヤムキプアー(September 21)9月21日 の間に約25万4千人のゲットー住人(他の記録では30万人)がトレブリンカ収容所に移され殺害された。1942年ポーランドレジスタンスの上層部の一員ヤンカルシキは西側の政府にゲットーの状況と大量殺戮収容所について報告している。1942年末までには(トレブリンカ等への)移住は死を意味している事が明白になり、多くのゲットーに残っている住人は戦う事を決意した。

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and destruction of the Ghetto

On January 18, 1943, the first instance of armed resistance occurred when the Germans started the final expulsion of the remaining Jews. The Jewish fighters had some success: the expulsion stopped after four days and the ŻOB and ŻZW resistance organizations took control of the Ghetto, building shelters and fighting posts and operating against Jewish collaborators. During the next three months, all inhabitants of the Ghetto prepared for what they realized would be a final struggle.


The final battle started on the eve of Passover, April 19, 1943, when the large Nazi force entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, the Germans under the field command of Jürgen Stroop systematically burned and blew up the ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 23, 1943, and the Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminated with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw on May 16, 1943. According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps, most to Treblinka.


Ejews : イスラエルとガザの問題は多くの人々がブログで意見を述べているでしょから今まで避けて来たのですが、今日は第二次大戦中のユダヤ人のワルシャワゲットーについてウキペディアから翻訳してみました。
 この叛乱は1961年のLeon Urisレオンウリスの小説“5月18日”や1986年の映画“ハイランダー”や、Aleksander Fordアレクサンダーフォードの1948年の映画“Border Streetボーダーストリート”、1955年のAndrzej Wajdaアンジェイワイダの“ A Generationジェネレーション(世代)”、2001年の“Uprisingアップライジング(叛乱)”、2002年のRoman Polanskiロマンポランスキーの“The Pianistピアニスト”で主題として取り上げられています。
 Andrzej Wajda(アンジェイ ワイダ)はポーランド人のワルシャワ叛乱を取り扱った1957年の映画“地下水道” Kanalカナル(ポーランド語で下水)等で有名で皆さんも御存知だと思います。
 ワルシャワゲットーを計画し責任者であった、ドイツのポーランド支配総轄政府知事Hans Frankハンスフランクは戦後ワルシャワゲットーについて責任を問われ戦争犯罪人としてニュールンベルグ裁判で有罪となり、絞首刑になりました。........ふ~ん??????


新しくリンクさせて頂いたブログがあります。 住職のひとりごと と言うブログです。この方は私の様な趣味の暇つぶしで仏教を勉強しているのではなく、正真正銘の御坊さんです。私も読ませて頂いたのですが素晴らしいブログです。仏教の事、社会の事、人生の事、etc,是非“住職のひとりごと”をヴィジットして下さい。

にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ


Beethoven and the Illuminati

How the secret order influenced the great composer.

By Jan Swafford, Slate Magazine

In 1779, a composer, writer, teacher, and dreamer named Christian Neefe arrived in Bonn, Germany, to work for the Electoral Court. Neefe (pronounced nay-fuh) was the definition of what Germans call a Schw醇Brmer, a person swarming with rapturous enthusiasms. In particular, he was inflamed with visions of endless human potentials that the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment promised to unleash. Like many progressives of the time, Neefe believed that humanity was finally coming of age. So he had picked the right place to get a job. Bonn was one of the most cultured and enlightened cities in Germany; the court supported a splendid musical and theatrical establishment. Before long in his new post, Neefe found himself mentoring a genius. Meanwhile, in his spare time, he signed on with a plan to, as it were, rule the world.

1779年、作曲家、作家、教育者そして夢想家がElectoral Court(選挙公宮廷?)で働く為ドイツの都市ボンに到着した。彼の名はクリスチャン ネイファ。ネイファはドイツ人がSchw醇Brmerシャヴェルメール?と呼ぶ、はちきれんばかりの情熱で溢れている人の典型だった。特に、彼は科学的革命と啓蒙主義が解き放つ無限の人間の可能性と言うヴィジョンに興奮していた。当時の他の多くの進歩主義者と同様にネイファは人類は終に成人に達したと信じていた。と言う事で彼は仕事をする為に最適な場所を選んだのであった。ボンはドイツで最も文化的で啓蒙的な都市のひとつであった。宮廷は素晴らしいミュージカルや劇場を支援していた。其処でネイファはまもなく新しい仕事で、ある天才を指導する羽目になるのであった。其の傍ら暇な時間にある計画に志願したのである。其の計画とは世界を支配すると言う事であった。ジャジャーン!

One of Neefe's first students was a sullen, grubby, taciturn 10-year-old keyboard player named Ludwig van Beethoven. He was the son of an alcoholic singer who had more or less beat music into him. The kid seemed more like a charity case than a budding musician, but Neefe soon discovered that his talent could put him in the league of the musical phenomenon of the age, a child of freakish gifts named Mozart.

最初のネイフの生徒の一人は無愛想で、汚らしく、非社交的なルートヴィッヒ フォン ベートーベンと言う名前の10歳のキーボード演奏家だった。(ベートーベンは)彼に音楽を教えると言うよりは叩き込むと言った方が妥当なアルコール中毒の歌手である父親の息子だった。この子は音楽家の卵と言うよりはどちらかと言うとネイファにとっては(ベートーベンに教える事は)慈善行為の様な物だった。しかしネイファは直ぐにベートーベンのタレントは当時の音楽界での神童でモーツアルトと言う名前の異様な才能の持ち主と同じリーグの仲間入りをさせる事が出来る事に気が付いたのだった。

Ludwig was named for his grandfather, who had been Kapellmeister, head of the court musical establishment. Old Ludwig's son, Johann van Beethoven, was a tenor in the choir; when his father died, he had made a bid to become Kapellmeister. Everybody but Johann understood that was ludicrous: He was a competent singer and music teacher, otherwise hopelessly mediocre and a devotee of the bottle. As often happens, the full ferocity of the father's blighted ambition landed on the son. Johann van Beethoven intended to make his oldest child into another Mozart, or else.

ルートビッヒはカペルマイスター(指揮者)で宮廷歌劇の指導者であった彼の御祖父さんにちなんで名付けられていた。ルートヴィッヒ御祖父さんの息子、ヨハン フォン ベートーベンはコーラスのテナー歌手で彼の父が他界した時カペルマイスターになる挑戦をしたのだが、ヨハン以外は彼の挑戦は馬鹿げた行為と思っていた。彼は有能な歌手で先生だったが其れ以外は凡庸でアル中だった。良く聞く話だが、父親の成し遂げれなかった野望が息子にのしかかったのである。ヨハン フォン ベートーベンは彼の長男をもう一人のモーツアルトにする積りだった。さもないと…………………………。

Neighbors used to see tiny Ludwig standing on a bench to reach the keyboard, his father standing over him shouting and threatening, the boy weeping as he played. When Ludwig was 7, his father put him on display in a concert and for good measure advertised him as age 6, the same as Mozart when he became famous. Johann was hoping for a sensation, but nothing came of it (except that Beethoven was confused about his age for the rest of his life). At 7 he had been a terrifically precocious keyboard player, but he wasn't another Mozart, at least not yet.


By the time Christian Neefe arrived in Bonn and started teaching Beethoven organ and composition, the 10-year-old was as good a keyboard player as anybody in town. Soon Neefe got into print some variations Ludwig had written, one of his first pieces―slight and conventional, still not Mozart but impressive for his age. In a newspaper article, Neefe cited the variations and said the magic words: With proper nurturing, this boy will "surely become a second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart."

クリスチャン ネイファがボンに到着しベートーベンにオルガンと作曲を教え始めていた時、この10歳の子供は町のどのキーボード演奏家達と同じほど良い演奏家となっていた。直ぐにネイファはルートヴィヒの作曲した幾つかの曲を出版し始めた.其の中の最初の一つはつまらない代わり映えのしない物で、未だモーツアルトと比べられる様な物でははなかったが、彼の年齢にしては印象的なものだった。新聞の記事でネイファはベートーベンの曲について引用した中で魔法の言葉を使っている。『適切な教育によってこの少年は確実に2番目のヴォルフガング アマデウス モーツアルトになる。』と。

By his midteens, Beethoven was a court musician in various capacities and making huge strides as a composer. His father had pulled him out of school after a few years so he could concentrate on music. (Beethoven learned to add and subtract but never learned to multiply. If he had to multiply 65 by 59, he wrote 65 in a column 59 times and added it up.) Meanwhile his father was promoting him relentlessly, mounting concerts in the house and taking him on tours around the Rhineland. By that point, there was little question in Ludwig's or anybody else's mind that he was headed for big things. One day when his landlord's daughter accosted him with, "How dirty you're looking again! You ought to keep yourself properly clean," he told her, "What's the difference? When I become a gentleman, nobody will care."

10代の中頃になった頃はルートヴィッヒ ベートーベンは種々の資格で宮廷音楽家として働きそして作曲家として大きな前進をしていた。彼の父は音楽に集中できる様にルートヴィッヒを数年で学校から退学させた。(ベートーベンは足し算と引き算を習ったが掛け算は全く習わなかった。若し65と59の掛け算をしなければならない時は,彼は65を縦に59回書いて足し合わせたのだった。)同時にコンサートを家で開催したり彼をラインランド至る所ツアーにつれ回し足りして、彼の父はルートヴィッヒを容赦なく売り込んでいた。この時点ではもう彼がデッカイ何かに向かっている事にルートヴィッヒや其の他の誰の心にも疑いはなかった。ある日彼の地主の娘が『貴方又なんて汚らしくしているの!チャント奇麗にしてなきゃ駄目じゃないの!』と語り掛けて来た時『そんな事どんな違いがある?私が紳士になったらそんな事誰も気になんかするもんか!』とルートヴィッヒは彼女に言ったのだった。

Which is to say that Beethoven was a prodigy and had the classic prodigy's trouble: He knew all about music, but he didn't know how to live. He had only a hazy sense of the reality of other people. Throughout Beethoven's youth, a row of mentors would attempt to civilize and socialize him, with mixed results.


In those years, his first serious mentor, Neefe the Schw醇Brmer, was in an especially perfervid phase of his spiritual life. For some time he had been a Freemason, a group then in its first century as a progressive, international, secular, semisecret order open to men of all faiths. (As such, the Masons were loathed by churches and regimes alike.) But Neefe was tired of the Masons' endless chatter of liberty and morality. He wanted a more ambitious and active kind of brotherhood―say, a new world order. That took him to one of the more bizarre sideshows of the Enlightenment: the Bavarian Illuminati. A Bonn lodge of the Illuminati formed, and Beethoven's teacher became head of it.

其の当時、彼の最初の本格的な指導者“ネイファ ザ シュヴェーマー”は特に熱狂的な精神生活の局面に差し掛かっていた。既に彼は全ての宗教を信じる人間が受け入れられる国際的で、世俗的、半分秘密的な結社、当時進歩的なグループとして最初の世紀を迎えていたフリーメイソンの一員だった。(それだけで、メイソンは教会や政権等に同様に忌み嫌われていた。)然しネイファはメイソンの終わりの無い自由と道徳についての御喋りに嫌気がさしていた。彼はもっと野望的で活動的な仲間を欲していた………言ってみればニューワールドオーダーの様な……………..。其れはネイファを啓蒙主義運動の中のもっと変てこな余興の一つに結び付けたのだった。其れは“バヴァリアンイルミナティ”ボンのイルミナティ支部が結成されベートーベンの先生が其の支部の親分になったのである。

Founded in 1776 by a Bavarian professor named Adam Weishaupt, the Illuminati joined radical politics and Jesuit-style hierarchy to fanatical secrecy. The aims of the order were ambitious, all right: They intended to change the world and had a plan to do it. The means were not to be by violent revolutions. The idea was to form a cadre of enlightened men who would steathlily infiltrate governments everywhere and slowly bring them to a kind of secular-humanist Elysium under the guidance of a secret ruling body. Said Adam Weishaupt: "Princes and nations shall disappear from the face of the earth peacefully, mankind shall become one family, and the world shall become a haven of reasonable people. Morality shall achieve this transformation, alone and imperceptibly."

For every Illuminatus, the perfection of society started with the perfection of one's own moral character. Aspiring members were given piles of text to read, required to write a rigorous self-examination and to undergo ritualized interrogations:


Where have you come from?/ From the world of the first chosen.
Whither do you want to go?/ To the inmost sanctum.
What do you seek there?/ He who is, who was, and who shall always be.
What inspires you?/ The light, which lives in me and is now ablaze in me.


For all the moony mysticism, the Illuminati had a high-Enlightenment agenda, rational, humanistic, and universal. They published a monthly magazine, Contributions to the Spread of Useful Knowledge, which was partly Enlightenment cheerleading, partly practical items relating to husbandry, housekeeping, and the like. Duty was the essence of Illuminati teaching, but it was an Enlightenment kind of duty: duty not to God or to princes but to the order and to humanity.


In practice, the Illuminati amounted to a kind of activist left wing of the Freemasons, from whom they drew most of their members. The numbers were never large, but they included people like Goethe (briefly) and Christian Koerner, a close friend and confidant of Friedrich Schiller. Koerner's influence seems to be why some Illuminati-tinged ideas―universal brotherhood and the triumph of happiness bringing humanity to Elysium―turned up in Schiller's famous poem Ode to Joy, which was often set to music and sung in Masonic and Illuminati circles. The poem would later enter history via the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

現実には、イルミナティはフリーメイソンの左翼活動家の様な役割を果たし、其の殆どのメンバーはフリーメイソンから得たのであった。メンバーの数は決して多くは無かったがゲーテ(短期間)やフレデリック シラーの親友クリスチャン コーナーの様な人々が含まれていた。コーナーの影響で…….普遍の同士と幸福の勝利が人類に極楽をもたらすと言うアイデアが、曲や歌としてフリーメイソンやイルミナティの仲間達の間で取り上げられたシラーの有名な詩“喜びの頌歌”に表れている様に感じられる。この詩は後にベートーベンの第九シンフォニーのフィナーレとして歴史上に残るのである。

As an Illuminatus, an important part of Christian Neefe's duty was to covertly inculcate promising young people in the ideals of the order, then to recruit them when they came of age. Beethoven was as promising as young people get. So did Neefe inculcate this student? Surely he did. Was Beethoven recruited to the order? No―the Illuminati dissolved in 1785, when he was 14. There is also a question as to how inculcatable Beethoven was by anybody. Even in his teens, he was so fixed on his own tack that he only intermittently took notice of the rest of the world.


Not only Neefe, but then and later most of Beethoven's other friends and mentors and patrons were ex-Illuminati or Freemasons. Did those influences have an impact on his life and art? Among many other things, certainly. By the time Beethoven left Bonn, he was already planning to set Schiller's Ode to music, and he had a good idea what that poem was about, from its humanistic surface to its Masonic and Illuminati depths. By then Bonn had helped give him ideas and ideals about being a composer that no one ever had before. He wanted to be something more than an entertainer. He wanted to be part of history.


If Beethoven had come from anywhere but Bonn he still might have been a genius, but he would not have been the same man and composer. True, he was more self-made than anything else, could see the world only through his own lens. He was a legendarily recalcitrant student and claimed to have learned nothing from any of his teachers. His most celebrated teacher, Joseph Haydn, sardonically dubbed Beethoven die grosse Mogul―in today's terms, the big shot. Yet at the same time, Beethoven was by no means aloof. He soaked up every idea around him, read voluminously in classical and modern literature, studied the music of older masters and modeled what he did on them. His art drew from myriad sources, among them the extravagant humanistic ideals floating around Bonn in his youth. One of the things it all added up to was something like this: music as an esoteric language wielded by a few enlightened men for the benefit of the world. Beethoven was all about duty to the abstraction called humanity. That was what he was taught and what he lived and wrote for, through all the miseries of going deaf and a great deal of physical pain. It was people he didn't much care about. But in taking up Schiller's Ode for the Ninth Symphony, he proposed not just to preach a sermon about the brotherhood of humanity and the dream of Elysium. He wanted the Ninth to help bring those things to pass.

若しベートーベンがボンではなく他の所からやって来たとしても、やはり彼は天才だったかも知れない。然し、彼は同じ人間で同じ作曲家ではなかっただろう。確かに彼は世界を自分自身のレンズを通してしか見れない事により、何よりも自分自身の能力で成功している。彼は伝説的なほど強情な生徒で、彼のどの先生からも何も習わなかったと宣言している。彼の最も有名な先生、ヨゼフハイドンは嘲笑的にベートーベンをdie grosse Mogul―ディーグロスモグル今日の言葉で大物(big shot.)と呼んでいる。しかしながら同時にベートーベンは冷淡で無関心と言う訳ではなかった。彼は周りの全てのアイデアを吸収し、膨大な量の古典と近代文学を読み、昔の大作曲家を勉強し手本にして真似ていた。彼の芸術は無数の源泉から成り立っていて、彼が青年時代を過ごしたボンのとっぴな人道主義的理想も其の中の一つであった。其の様に出来上がった中の一つでこの様な物がある:秘密の言語で啓蒙された少数の人間によって世界の為に使用される。ベートーベンの人生は人道主義と言う抽象的な物への義務だった。聴覚を失う悲劇や肉体的な大きな痛みを通り越し、其れが彼が教えられた物であり、その為に生き、その為に作曲した。彼がそれほど好きじゃなかった物は人間だった。然し、シラーの“喜びの頌歌”を第九に取り上げる事によって、単に人類愛や楽園の夢について説教を説くだけでなく、それらを企てたのである。彼は第九がそれらが実現する手助けとなる様に望んだのである。

As for the Illuminati, call them one more example of the Enlightenment's excesses of hope for human perfectibility. Since Beethoven's day, the secrecy and world-ordering agenda of the Illuminati have made them a natural magnet for conspiracy freaks. Awww, how cute you are! - ILThe Illuminati actually existed only some nine years, but there are still lots of folks, including many on the American religious right and the John Birch Society, who believe the Illuminati are the mother of all conspiracies, a Jewish-dominated international cabal that has more or less run the world since they incited the French Revolution. My saying they were a short-lived and a bit pathetic phenomenon makes me, of course, part of the conspiracy―along with Beethoven. I'd like finally to meet some of my fellow conspirators. They seem like interesting people.



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エジプトの神HorusホールスとYeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesusナザレスのヨシュア別名イエスの類似点。

Only begotten son of the God Osiris.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus イエス
Only begotten son of Yehovah (in the form of the Holy Spirit).

Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus イエス
Miriam (a.k.a. Mary).
Foster father:

Seb, (Jo-Seph)
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Foster father's ancestry:

両者とも........................Of royal descent.王族の子孫
Birth location

In a cave
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
In a cave or stable

By an angel to Isis, his mother
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
By an angel to Miriam, his mother
Birth heralded by

The star Sirius, the morning star
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
An unidentified "star in the East."
Birth date:

Ancient Egyptians paraded a manger and child representing Horus through the streets at the time of the winter solstice (typically DEC-21).
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Celebrated on DEC-25. The date was chosen to occur on the same date as the birth of Mithra, Dionysus and the Sol Invictus (unconquerable Sun), etc.
Birth announcement:

両者とも....................................By angels.天使によって
Birth witnesses:

Later witnesses to birth:

Three solar deities.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Three wise men
Death threat during infancy:

Herut tried to have Horus murdered.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Herod tried to have Jesus murdered.
Handling the threat:

The God That tells Horus' mother "Come, thou godess Isis, hide thyself with thy child."
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
An angel tells Jesus' father to: "Arise and take the young child and his mother and flee into Egypt."
Rite of passage ritual:

Horus came of age with a special ritual, when his eye was restored.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Taken by parents to the temple for what is today called a bar mitzvah ritual.
Age at the ritual:

Break in life history

No data between ages of 12 & 30.
Baptism location:

Horus..............................................................In the river Eridanusエリダヌス河
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus.............In the river Jordan.ヨルダン河
Age at baptism:
Baptized by:

Horus............................................................Anup the Baptiser. 洗礼者アヌプ
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus..........John the Baptist 洗礼者ジョン
Subsequent fate of the baptiser:

Taken from the desert of Amenta up a high mountain by his arch-rival Sut. Sut (a.k.a. Set) was a precursor for the Hebrew Satan.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Taken from the desert in Palestine up a high mountain by his arch-rival Satan.
Result of temptation:

Horus resists temptation.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Jesus resists temptation.

Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. He "stilled the sea by his power."
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. He ordered the sea with a "Peace, be still" command.
Raising of the dead:

Horus raised Osirus, his dead father, from the grave.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Jesus raised Lazarus from the grave.
Location where the resurrection miracle occurred:

Anu, an Egyptian city where the rites of the death, burial and resurrection of Horus were enacted annually.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Hebrews added their prefix for house ('beth") to "Anu" to produce "Beth-Anu" or the "House of Anu." Since "u" and "y" were interchangeable in antiquity, "Bethanu" became "Bethany," the location mentioned in John 11.
Origin of Lazarus' name in the Gospel of John:
Asar was an alternative name for Osirus, Horus' father, who Horus raised from the dead. He was referred to as "the Asar," as a sign of respect. Translated into Hebrew, this is "El-Asar." The Romans added the prefix "us" to indicate a male name, producing "Elasarus." Over time, the "E" was dropped and "s" became "z," producing "Lazarus."
アサルはホールスが死から復活させたの父オシルスの別名で彼は敬意を表してアサルTHE ASARと呼ばれていた。ヘブライ語に翻訳されEl-Asarとなり、ローマ人が男性名詞を示す接頭辞USを加えてElasarusとし、長い間にEが落とされ、SがZに変わりLazarusとなった。

Horus..............................................................On a mountain.山頂
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a.Jesus..............On a high mountain.山の高み。
Key address(es):

Sermon on the Mount.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Sermon on the Mount; Sermon on the Plain.
Method of death
...........................................両者ともBy crucifixion.十字架での死
Accompanied by:
......................両者ともTwo thieves.二人の泥棒
................................................両者ともIn a tomb.墓場
Fate after death:

Descended into Hell; resurrected after three days.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Descended into Hell; resurrected after about 30 to 38 hours (Friday PM to presumably some time in Sunday AM) covering parts of three days.
Resurrection announced by:
..................................両者ともReign for 1,000 years in the Millennium.千年間の支配
Common portrayal:

Virgin Isis holding the infant Horus.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Virgin Mary holding the infant Jesus.
KRST, the anointed one.
Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
Christ, the anointed one.
Other names:他の名前
The good shepherd, the lamb of God, the bread of life, the son of man, the Word, the fisher, the winnower.



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メリー クリスマス。I wish you a Merry Christmas !


How Did Christmas Come to Be...


Christmas has always been a holiday celebrated carelessly. For millennia, pagans, Christians, and even Jews have been swept away in the season’s festivities, and very few people ever pause to consider the celebration’s intrinsic meaning, history, or origins.


The word "Christmas" means "Mass of Christ," or, as it came to be shortened, "Christ-Mass." It came to non-Christians and Protestants from the Roman Catholic Church. And where did they get it? NOT from the New Testament - NOT from the Bible - NOT from the original apostles who were personally instructed by Christ - but it gravitated in the fourth century into the Roman Church from paganism.


Roman pagans first introduced the holiday of Saturnalia, a week long period of lawlessness celebrated between December 17-25.The ancient Greek writer poet and historian Lucian (in his dialogue entitled Saturnalia) describes the festival’s observance in his time. "In addition to human sacrifice, he mentions these customs: widespread intoxication; going from house to house while singing naked; rape and other sexual license; and consuming human-shaped biscuits" (still produced in some English and most German bakeries during the Christmas season).


440 AD POPE SIXTUS III establishes Roman Pontifical Authority as state law. Perpetual Virgin Mary declared Mother of God and modern Christ-Mass takes final form as mandatory state law.POPE SIXth III Created along with the Roman Ceasar Theodosius II, a CODEX which enforced the ROMAN CHRIST – MASS as STATE LAW. Dissenters were declared “legally Insane.


Christianity imported the Saturnalia festival (4th century CE) hoping to take the pagan masses in with it. Christian leaders succeeded in converting to Christianity large numbers of pagans by promising them that they could continue to celebrate the Saturnalia as Christians.


The problem was that there was nothing intrinsically Christian about Saturnalia. To remedy this, these Christian leaders named Saturnalia’s concluding day, December 25th, to be Jesus’ birthday.Christians had little success, however, refining the practices of Saturnalia. As Stephen Nissenbaum, professor history at the University of Massachussetts, Amherst, writes, “In return for ensuring massive observance of the anniversary of the Savior’s birth by assigning it to this resonant date, the Church for its part tacitly agreed to allow the holiday to be celebrated more or less the way it had always been.” The earliest Christmas holidays were celebrated by drinking, sexual indulgence, singing naked in the streets etc.


The Reverend Increase Mather of Boston observed in 1687 that “the early Christians who first observed the Nativity on December 25 did not do so thinking that Christ was born in that Month, but because the Heathens’ Saturnalia was at that time kept in Rome, and they were willing to have those Pagan Holidays metamorphosed into Christian ones.” Because of its known pagan origin, Christmas was banned by the Puritans and its observance was illegal in Massachusetts between 1659 and 1681. However, Christmas was and still is celebrated by most Christians.

The Reverend Increase Mather of Bostonは1687年にこう書き留めている『12月25日に救世主の誕生を祝った初期のキリスト教徒はキリストが12月に生まれたと思ってした訳ではない、然し異教徒のサターナリアが当時のローマでは残っていて、異教徒の祝日がキリスト教の祝日に変質していく事を望んでいた。』この知られているクリスマスの異教の起源の為に清教徒の間ではクリスマスは禁止され其れを祝うことはマサチューセッツでは1659年~1681年の間違法であった。然しながらクリスマスは殆どのキリスト教徒によって祝われていて、今も祝われている。

Some of the most depraved customs of the Saturnalia carnival were intentionally revived by the Catholic Church in 1466 when Pope Paul II, for the amusement of his Roman citizens, forced Jews to race naked through the streets of the city. An eyewitness account reports, “Before they were to run, the Jews were richly fed, so as to make the race more difficult for them and at the same time more amusing for spectators. They ran… amid Rome’s taunting shrieks and peals of laughter, while the Holy Father stood upon a richly ornamented balcony and laughed heartily.”

最も邪悪なサターナリア カーニヴァルの習慣の一つは1466年にカトリック教会の教皇ポール2世によって意図的に復活された。其れはローマ市民の楽しみの為ユダヤ教信者を裸で街を走らせるという物だった。目撃者の報告によると『彼等が走り出す前に彼等が走り難くなる為と、観客を楽しませる為にユダヤ教徒は沢山食事を食べさせられた。そして彼等はローマ市民の嘲り、叫び、調子を合わせた笑いの中走っていった。その間教皇は豪華に飾り付けられたバルコニーに立ち盛んに笑っていた。』

The Origins of Christmas Customs.

(Yule) - When the sun begins its northward trek in the sky, and days began to grow longer again, pagans celebrated the Winter Solstice by burning the Yule log. Since the sun had reversed itself and was now rising in the sky, pagans believed this was a sign that the human sacrifices carried out in Samhain (Halloween) had been accepted by the gods.


As the song: Deck the halls with boughs of holly … troll the ancient Yuletide carol … See the blazing Yule before us. Fa la la la la la la la. Song represent Pagan Traditions of the Holidays.


Christmas Trees.クリスマスツリー
Just as early Christians recruited Roman pagans by associating Christmas with the Saturnalia, so too worshippers of the Asheira cult and its offshoots were recruited by the Church sanctioning “Christmas Trees”. Pagans had long worshipped trees in the forest, or brought them into their homes and decorated them, and this observance was adopted and painted with a Christian veneer by the Church.


Norse mythology recounts how the god Balder was killed using a mistletoe arrow by his rival god Hoder while fighting for the female Nanna. Druid rituals use mistletoe to poison their human sacrificial victim. The Christian custom of “kissing under the mistletoe” is a later synthesis of the sexual license of Saturnalia with the Druidic sacrificial cult.


Christmas Presentsクリスマスプレゼント

In pre-Christian Rome, the emperors compelled their most despised citizens to bring offerings and gifts during the Saturnalia (in December) and Kalends (in January). Later, this ritual expanded to include gift-giving among the general populace. The Catholic Church gave this custom a Christian flavor by re-rooting it in the supposed gift-giving of Sain Nicholas


Santa Claus サンタクロース
Nicholas was born in Parara, Turkey in 270 CE and later became Bishop of Myra. He died in 345 CE on December 6th. He was only named a saint in the 19th century.
Nicholas was among the most senior bishops who convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and created the New Testament. The text they produced portrayed Jews as “the children of the devil" who sentenced Jesus to death.


In 1087, a group of sailors who idolized Nicholas moved his bones from Turkey to a sanctuary in Bari, Italy. There Nicholas supplanted a female boon-giving deity called The Grandmother, or Pasqua Epiphania, who used to fill the children's stockings with her gifts. The Grandmother was ousted from her shrine at Bari, which became the center of the Nicholas cult. Members of this group gave each other gifts during a pageant they conducted annually on the anniversary of Nicholas’ death, December 6.

1089年、ニコラスに心酔する船乗りの集団が彼の骨をトルコからイタリアのバリに移した。其処でニコラスは頼み事を叶え子供達のストッキングをプレゼントでいっぱいにする、パスクア エピファニアか御祖母さんと呼ばれる女神に取って代わった。御祖母さんはバリの神社から追い出されてしまい、其処はニコラス崇拝の中心になった。この集団のメンバーは12月6日のニコラスの死んだ日を記念した年に一回のページェントの間に御互いにプレゼント交換した。

The Nicholas cult spread north until it was adopted by German and Celtic pagans. These groups worshipped a pantheon led by Woden –their chief god and the father of Thor, Balder, and Tiw. Woden had a long, white beard and rode a horse through the heavens one evening each Autumn. When Nicholas merged with Woden, he shed his Mediterranean appearance, grew a beard, mounted a flying horse, rescheduled his flight for December, and donned heavy winter clothing.


In a bid for pagan adherents in Northern Europe, the Catholic Church adopted the Nicholas cult and taught that he did (and they should) distribute gifts on December 25th instead of December 6th.


In 1931, the Coca Cola Corporation contracted the Swedish commercial artist Haddon Sundblom to create a coke-drinking Santa. Sundblom modeled his Santa on his friend Lou Prentice, chosen for his cheerful, chubby face. The corporation insisted that Santa’s fur-trimmed suit be bright, Coca Cola red. And Santa was born – a blend of Christian crusader, pagan god, and commercial idol.

1931年、コカ.コーラ社はスエーデンのコマーシャル アーティスト、ハドン サンドボルムと契約しコカコーラを飲んでいるサンタを作り出した。サンドボルムは彼のサンタのモデルに友達のルー プレンティスを彼の陽気でポチャポチャした顔の為に選んだ。コカコーラはサンタの刈り込まれた毛皮のコートは鮮鋭なコカ.コーラの赤にするべきだと固執した。この様にキリスト教十字軍(此処ではアグレッシヴな改宗、布教活動の意味?)、異教徒の神、そして商業活動の偶像が混じり合ってサンタは誕生したのだった。

Many of the most popular Christmas customs – including Christmas trees, mistletoe, Christmas presents, and Santa Claus – are modern incarnations of pagan rituals.
Many are excitedly preparing for their Christmas celebrations and would prefer not knowing about the holiday’s real significance. If they do know the history, they often feel that their celebration has nothing to do with the holiday’s history and meaning.. and say... “We are just having fun enjoying our pretty Ashteroth tree and the lovely presents therein.

多くの最も人気のあるクリスマスの習慣………クリスマス ツリー、ミスルトー(やどりぎ)、クリスマスプレゼント、そしてサンタクロースを含めた……….は異教の宗教儀式の現代での具現化です。多くの人々は興奮してクリスマスの御祝いを準備していて、この祝日の本当の意味を知らない事を選んでいるかも知れない。若し彼等がこの歴史を知ってしまうと彼等は多くの場合このお祝いがこの祝日の歴史や意味と何の関係も無いと感じてしまうのだ。そして『私達は唯、奇麗な常緑樹と此処にある愛らしいプレゼントを楽しんでいるだけだよ!』と言うのだ。


Christmas (IPA: /krɪsməs/), also referred to as Christmas Day or Christmastide, is an annual holiday celebrated on December 25 that marks and honors the birth of Jesus of Nazareth.[2][3] The birth of Jesus, which is the basis for the anno Domini system of dating, is thought to have occurred between 7 and 2 BC.[4] December 25 is not thought to be Jesus' actual date of birth, and the date may have been chosen to correspond with either a Roman festival,[5] or with the winter solstice.[6]


Modern customs of the holiday include gift-giving, church celebrations, and the display of various decorations―including the Christmas tree, lights, mistletoe, nativity scenes and holly. Santa Claus (also referred to as Father Christmas, although the two figures have different origins) is a popular mythological figure often associated with bringing gifts at Christmas. Santa is generally believed to be the result of a syncretization between St. Nicholas of Myra and elements from pagan Nordic and Christian mythology, and his modern appearance is believed to have originated in 19th century media.


Christmas is celebrated throughout the Christian population, but is also celebrated by many non-Christians as a secular, cultural festival. The holiday is celebrated around the world. Because gift-giving and several other aspects of the holiday involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, Christmas has become a major event for many retailers.


ejnews:現在日本ではクリスマスやサンタの起源は良く知られていると思いますが、私がブログを始めて初めてのクリスマスですので、やはりクリスマスについて無視は出来ませんでした。どの宗教も国家と結び付くと変てこな事を始める様ですね。日本の景気は如何ですか?アメリカが風邪を引くと日本は肺炎になる?と言われていましたが状況は変わったのでしょうか?処で、米共和党のカールローブと深い繋がりのあるマイク コネルと言うコンピューター コンサルタントが自家用機の事故で亡くなりました。彼はこの8年間ほどアメリカではコンピューター関係の票の数の操作で強く疑われていて、4年前の大統領選挙時オハイオ州でのコンピューター投票違反を指揮していた中心人物として最近法廷か議会で証言するはずでしたが、此れでブッシュ政権は選挙違反については一安心と言う所です。非常に都合の良い事故ですね!警察からも飛行機がサボタージュされる可能性があるので飛行は当分止めた方が良いとの警告が彼に出ていたそうです。このニュース日本で報道されていますか?次回はイエスキリストと他の中近東の神様との比較の記事の翻訳を計画しています。



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