Business Plot ビジネス プロット



The Business Plot, the Plot Against FDR, or the White House Putsch, was an uncovered conspiracy involving several wealthy businessmen to
overthrow the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933.
ザ ビジネス プロット、FDRに対する企み、若しくは、ザ ホワイト ハウス プッチ、は1933年に発覚したフランクリンDルーズヴェルトを大統領の座から放り出そうとした数人の裕福なビジネスマンを巻き込んだ陰謀。

Purported details of the matter came to light when retired Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler testified before a Congressional committee that a group of men had attempted to recruit him to serve as the leader of a plot and to assume and wield power once the coup was successful. Butler testified before the McCormack-Dickstein Committee in 1934。In his testimony, Butler claimed that a group of several men had approached
him as part of a plot to overthrow Roosevelt in a military coup. One of
the alleged plotters, Gerald MacGuire, vehemently denied any such plot.
In their final report, the Congressional committee supported Butler's allegations on the existence of the plot,[2] but no prosecutions or further investigations followed, and the matter was mostly forgotten.
General Butler claimed that the American Liberty League was the primary means of funding the plot. The main backers were the Du Pont family, as well as leaders of U.S. Steel, General Motors, Standard Oil, Chase
National Bank, and Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. A BBC documentary claims Prescott Bush, father and grandfather to the 41st and 43rd US Presidents respectively, was also connected.[3]Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881 – June 21, 1940),


バトラー将軍はアメリカンリバティーリーグが計画に資金を出す手段として使われたと主張している。主だった支持者はデュポン家と共にUSスチール、ジェナラル モーターズ、スタンダード オイル、チェイス ナショナル バンク、そしてグッドイヤー タイヤ&ラバー カンパニーの指導者達だった。英国のBBCのドキュメンタリーは41代と43代大統領の父親と祖父だったプレスコット ブッシュも関係していたと主張している。

Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881 – June 21, 1940),
スメドレイ ダーリントン バトラー:生存中最も功績のあった海兵隊員。彼のWar Is a Racket(戦争は恐喝だ!or戦争はゆすりだ!)と言うスピーチと著書はビジネスがアメリカの軍事行動によって利益を得ている事を告発していて有名でA military-industrial complex (MIC)軍事産業複合体を始めて取り扱った著書の一つとしても有名。

the American Liberty Leagueザ アメリカン リバティー リーグ

Background 背景

On July 17, 1932, thousands of World War I veterans converged on
Washington, D.C., set up tent camps, and demanded immediate payment of bonuses due them according to the Adjusted Service Certificate Law
of 1924. Called the Bonus Army, they were led by Walter W. Waters, a
former Army sergeant, and encouraged by an appearance from retired
Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler, who had considerable
influence over the veterans, being one of the most popular military
figures of the time. A few days after Butler's appearance, President
Herbert Hoover ordered the marchers removed, and their camps were
destroyed by US Army cavalry troops under the command of General
Douglas MacArthur.
Butler, although a prominent Republican, responded by supporting
Roosevelt in that year's election.
1932年7月17日、1924年のアジャステド サーヴィス サテフィケイト条例で約束され支払期限の来ている従軍兵への即座の支払いを求め、何千人もの第一次大戦のヴェテランがワシントンDCに集合しテント村を設置した。其れはボーナスアーミーと呼ばれ、彼等は退役陸軍軍曹ウオルターWウオーターに率いられ、ヴェテラン達の間に大きな影響力を持ち、当時軍人として最も人気のあった一人の退役海兵隊将軍スメドレイバトラーの訪問で元気付けられた。バトラーの訪問の数日後ハーバートフーヴァー大統領は(ヴェテラン)のデモ行進の排除を命令し、彼等のテント村はダグラスマッカーサー将軍の指揮下の陸軍騎兵隊によって破壊された。

Adjusted Service Certificate Law of 1924.第一次大戦に従軍したヴェテランで国内で従軍した兵士は従軍期間一日1ドル、国外で従軍した兵士は一日1ドル25セントで計算されたボーナスを支給されると言う連邦法。

Clayton Cramer, in a 1995 History Today article, argued that the
devastation of the Great Depression had caused many Americans to
question the foundations of liberal democracy. "Many traditionalists, here and in Europe, toyed with the ideas of Fascism and National Socialism;
many liberals dallied with Socialism and Communism." Cramer argues that this explains why some American business leaders viewed fascism as a
viable system to both preserve their interests and end the economic
woes of the Depression.

クレイトン クラマーは1995年の“ヒストリーツディ”(今日の歴史)の記事でこう論じている。『世界大恐慌の破壊的影響が多くのアメリカ人が“自由民主主義”の基礎を疑う原因となった。多くの伝統主義者が此処とヨーロッパでファシズムと国家社会主義と言うアイデアを玩具の様に弄ぶ様になり、多くのリベラルは社会主義と共産主義を弄ぶ様になった。』クラマーは、この事が如何して或るアメリカのビジネスリーダー達がファシズムを彼等の利権を保護し恐慌の苦しみに終止符を打つ実行可能ななシステムとして捉える様になった原因だと議論している。
にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ

Ejnews:今日は1933年のビジネスプロットと言うフランクリンDルーズヴェルトに対するクーデター計画の話でした。この話は多くの有名な資本家達が民主党のアメリカン リバティー リーグと言うグループと共に共謀していたので、発覚後『都合の悪い話は絨毯の下に掃きこんで忘れた振りをしましょう!』と言う事になり歴史の表面から押やられてしまった様で、アメリカ人でも知っている人は少ないようです。



DuPont, William Randolph Hearst, and hemp
デュポン、ウイリアム ランドルフ ハースト、とヘンプ(麻)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The decision of the United States Congress to pass the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was based on hearings,[2] reports[22] and in part on testimony derived from articles in newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, who had significant financial interests in the timber industry, which manufactured his newsprint.[23]
米議会での1937年のマリワナ税条例可決は公聴会と報告、部分的に新聞紙を製造する木材業界にかなりの投資をしていた、ウイリアム ランドルフ ハーストの経営する新聞の記事を基にして決定された。

Cannabis activist Jack Herer has researched DuPont and in his 1985 book The Emperor Wears No Clothes, Herer concluded DuPont played a large role in the criminalization of cannabis. In 1938, DuPont patented the processes for creating plastics from coal and oil and a new process for creating paper from wood pulp. If hemp would have been largely exploited, Herer believes it would have likely been used to make paper and plastic (nylon), and may have hurt DuPont’s profits. Andrew Mellon of the Mellon Bank was DuPont's chief financial backer and was also the Secretary of Treasury under the Hoover administration. Mellon appointed Harry J. Anslinger, who later became his nephew-in-law, as the head of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (FBNDD) and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN), where Anslinger stayed until 1962.[24]
カナビス アクティヴィスト(麻類活動家)ジャック ハレアーはデュポンを調べそして1985年の彼の著書The Emperor Wears No Clothes,“皇帝は服を着ていない(裸の皇帝)”でハレアーはデュポンはカナビス(麻類)の違法化に大きな役割を果たしたと結論付けた。1938年デュポンは石炭と石油からプラスチックを製造する方法と木材パルプからの製紙法の特許権を得ていた。若し麻が大々的に活用されていたら製紙やプラスチック(ナイロン)の製造に使われていてデュポンの利益を損ねる事になっていただろうとハレアーは信じている。メロン銀行のアンドリュー メロンはデュポンの主要な経済的な後ろ盾でフーヴァー政権の財務長官でもあった。メロンは後に義理の甥になるハリー J アンスリンガーを彼が1962まで留まった麻薬劇薬局と連邦麻薬局の局長に任命した。

In 1916, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) chief scientists Jason L. Merrill and Lyster H. Dewe created paper made from hemp pulp, which they concluded was "favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood in USDA Bulletin No. 404." In his book Herer summarized the findings of Bulletin No. 404
Herer wrote:
1916年米合衆国農務省(USAD)の科学者主任ジェイソン L メリルとリスター H ディユは麻から紙を作り出し、彼等は木材パルプから作られた紙と比べて質が良いとUSDAの報告書No404で結論付けている。ハレアーは報告書No404の発見を手短に述べている。

USDA Bulletin No. 404, reported that one acre of hemp, in annual rotation over a 20-year period, would produce as much pulp for paper as 4.1 acres (17,000 m2) of trees being cut down over the same 20-year period. This process would use only 1/4 to 1/7 as much polluting sulfur-based acid chemicals to break down the glue-like lignin that binds the fibers of the pulp, or even none at all using soda ash. The problem of dioxin contamination of rivers is avoided in the hemp paper making process, which does not need to use chlorine bleach (as the wood pulp paper making process requires) but instead safely substitutes hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching process. ... If the new (1916) hemp pulp paper process were legal today, it would soon replace about 70% of all wood pulp paper, including computer printout paper, corrugated boxes and paper bags.

Hemp was a relatively easy target because factories already had made large investments in equipment to handle cotton, wool, and linen, but there were relatively small investments in hemp production. Big technological improvements in the wood pulp industry were invented in the 1930s, for example the recovery boiler, and other improvements came later. So, there is a niche market for hemp paper, but the cost of hemp pulp is approximately six times that of wood pulp.[27] There was also a misconception hemp had an intoxicating effect because it has the same active substance, THC, which is in potent cannabis strains; however, hemp only has minimal amount of THC when compared to recreational cannabis strains.
工場が既に木綿、ウール、リネン、等を取り扱う為の設備に大きな投資をしていたので麻は比較的容易な素材であったが、麻に対しては投資額は比較的に少なかった。例えば、リカヴァリーボイラーの様な、木材パルプ業界の大きな技術革新には1930年代に投資が行われ、その他の技術革新も後に続いた。と言う事で麻で作られた紙には特殊な市場(niche marketニッシ マーケト)があるのではあるが、麻のパルプは木材パルプの約6倍の費用が必要なのである。其れに加えて、 強力な種類の麻(大麻)に含まれているTHC、と言う同じ物質が麻に含まれていて、麻には酔わせる様な効果と言う一つの誤解がある。然し、娯楽用の麻類(大麻、マリワナ)と比較すると麻には最小限のTHCしか含まれていないのです。

An alternative explanation for Anslinger's opinion's about hemp is that he believed that a tax on cannabis could be easier to supervise if it included hemp and that he had reports from experiments with mechanical harvesting of hemp reporting that the machines was no success and reports about cannabis farms.

"The existence of the old 1934-1935 crop of harvested hemp on the fields of southern Minnesota is a menace to society in that it is being used by traffickers in marihuana as a source of supply."

"they were able to cut only a part of the Tribune Farm crop by machine, two thirds of it they did by hand with a sharp hand cuttertuff".

An argument for the alternative theory is that hemp was not an alternative as material in the new commercial products from DuPont using oil or coal as raw material, the nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938) followed more famously by women's “nylons” stockings (1940). Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk not hemp.
上記の説に対する議論は“麻は、石炭と石油が原料のデュポンのナイロンが使われている歯ブラシ(1938年)、もっと有名な女性のナイロン ストッキング(1940年)の様な、新しい商業製品代替原料ではなかった。ナイロンは絹の代わりになる人工の代替品と意図された。それは麻ではなかった。”と言う事である。

Andrew Mellon, Banker and Congressman.
アンドリュー メロン、銀行家そして議員。

Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 — August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.

Hemp Downunderと言うオーストラリアのサイトの一部の翻訳です。

Andrew Mellon was, in his time, one of the richest men in America. He was owner of the Mellon Bank and was financial backer for petro-chemical giant DuPont Chemicals. He was also a Congressman and Secretary of the Treasury under President Hoover. This was power.
アンドリュー メロンは彼の生きた時代アメリカで最も裕福な人の一人であった。彼はメロン バンクの所有者で石油化学業界の巨人デュポン ケミカルの経済的支援者であった。そして彼は下院議員でフーヴァー大統領の財務長官であった。此れは権力だ!

Part of his portfolio of political responsibilities was the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, to which he appointed his nephew-in-law, Harry Anslinger, as head. This was nepotism.
彼の政治的義務のポトフォリオの一部は連邦麻薬捜査局で、其処に彼は局長としてハリー アンスリンガー、義理の甥を指名したのだった。此れはネポティズムだ!

Nepotism 親戚や知人を官職に就ける等の優遇する行為。親族優遇。

The appointment of Ainslinger was to have important historical consequences for U.S. agriculture and Big Business, and indirectly have a huge impact on the global environment.

In the late '30s hemp was shaping up to be 'the crop of the future' - and Mellon stood to lose millions because of his petro-chemical investments. With his powerful political and family connections he was in a strategic position to "look after" his business associates and frustrate their competitors.
1930年代後半“未来の農作物”として麻は成りつつあった。そしてメロンは石油化学業界への投資で何百万ドルも失う筈だった。政治的そして家族のコネクションで彼のビジネス アソシエイトの面倒を見競争相手の邪魔をする重要な地位に居たのだった。

Dupont : the Nylon King

Dupont Chemicals was, and still is, one of the largest petro-chemical manufacturers in America. It's multi-national tentacles stretch far. You can see advertisements for their products on government buses here in Australia.
デュポン ケミカルはアメリカで一番大きい石油化学製造会社の一つだッた。そして今もそうだ。其の多国籍企業としての触手は遠くまで延びている。此処オーストラリアでは、この企業の製品の広告は政府のバスでも見る事が出来る。

Around 1935 Dupont had patented a new synthetic fibre called Nylon, and a great deal of money was invested in an extensive campaign to market Nylon to the public. Hemp at this stage was still a legal crop, and though its natural attributes were many, it's labour intensive production process made it very expensive in comparison with cotton and the new, chemically-produced Nylon.

However, a machine which had been invented in the early 1900's and perfected around 1937 was set to revolutionize the Hemp industry. The decorticator would separate the herds from the stalks, leaving the long fibers ready to be put into bails. What the "cotton gin" did for the cotton industry, the decorticator was about to do for the manufacturing of a wide variety of hemp products, especially paper-making, rope-making and as a raw material for clothing manufacture. Dupont stood to lose millions.

A cotton gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds, a job previously done by hand.

Banker to the Dupont empire at this time was a certain Andrew Mellon, who also happened to be a Congressman and Secretary to the Treasury. Included in Mellon's portfolio was responsiblity for the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Mellon appointed his nephew-in-law, Harry Anslinger to head the Bureau. Collusion cannot be proved, but Anslingers activities in this role had a huge indirect impact on American agricultural and manufacturing processes, and of course Mellon's business interests.
当時のデュポン帝国の銀行はアンドリューメロンでそして偶然にも彼は下院議員、又財務長官度もあった。彼のポトフォリオは連邦麻薬局についての責任も含んでいた。メロンは甥のハリー アンスリンガーを局長に任命した。共謀していたかどうかは証明できないが、然し、アンスリンガーのこの役割(連邦麻薬局長)での活動は間接的にアメリカ農業と其の製造過程に、そして勿論メロンのビジネスの利害に大きな影響を与えた。

In December 1937 Anslinger introduced the Marijuana Tax Bill, an event which proved to be the beginning of the era of Prohibition of Cannabis.

Simultaneously, a fear campaign of anti-Marijuana propaganda was run as front page "news" stories by one of America's most powerful newspaper proprietors, Randolf Hearst. By coincidence Hearst had begun using wood-pulp for paper and invested heavily in its production. The chemicals used to make the wood-pulp suitable for news-print were supplied by Dupont Chemicals. Hemp's fate was sealed.

Few of the congressmen who voted in favour of this Bill realised that they were in effect making all strains of Hemp illegal, subsequently wiping out the industrial hemp industry. In an age when environmental awareness was still dismally limited, fewer of these law-makers could have imagined the future ramifications in terms of environmental degradation which would result from this conspiracy to remove hemp, the strongest, most ecologically sustainable and least pollutant of fibres, from the available range of raw materials suitable for manufacture of paper, rope and cloth fabric.

William Randolph Hearst,
ウイリアム ランドルフ ハースト

Newspaper & printmill baron

(baronバロンは男爵と言う意味ですが、軽蔑的な意味で~王、と言う場合アメリカ英語ではバロンが使われます。例えば、19世紀後半~20世紀初頭のアメリカの企業家、資本家達、カーネギー、ロックフェラー、メロン、モーガン、ヴァンダービルト、等はRobber baron泥棒男爵と呼ばれています。)

Randolph Hearst was, during his lifetime, proprietor of one of the largest and most powerful newspaper empires in the U.S.A.

Through editorial sway over his print-media outlets, Hearst introduced to America and the rest of the world the Mexican slang term Marihuana. Anti-Marihuana proganda in headlines and front-page stories from Hearst Newspapers were used by Harry Anslinger, head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, for his famous Gore File and later as the main body of evidence to support and push through the Marihuana Tax Bill of 1937, the beginning of prohibition as we know it today. By subtly linking the Marihuana menace with racial overtones, Hearst and Anslinger cleverly played on American pre-war xenophobia and isolationism.
彼の出版物への編集上の影響力を利用してハーストはメキシコのスラングである“マリワナ”をアメリカやその他の諸国に紹介した。ハーストの新聞の反マリワナプロパガンダの見出しや第一面の記事は連邦麻薬局長のハリーアンスリンガーによって1937年のマリワナ税条例を議会で承認させる為、後に主な証拠となった彼の有名な“ゴア ファイル”として利用された。巧妙にマリワナの脅威を人種差別に絡め、ハーストとアンスリンガーは戦前のアメリカ人の外国嫌いや孤立主義を巧妙に利用していった。

This was beginning of the "smoke-screen" which uses the confusion between industrial hemp and "illicit psycho-stimulants" as a lever for eliminating the traditional use of hemp fibre from the Capitalist equation. This is still the problem to this day in gaining research funding for industrial use of the hemp.

Was it coincidence that around the time of this wave of media hysteria, Hearst had tooled up his paper mills to use wood-pulp as the raw material for the large scale manufacture of paper, no doubt a substantial commitment and investment? It was clearly not in Hearst's interest to see the strongest traditional challenger as an alternative raw material for paper, hemp, suddenly become much cheaper. The chemicals, such as deadly chlorine bleaches, essential to the process of turning wood-pulp into acceptable paper (a use for which timber is not particularly well-suited) were developed and supplied by Dupont, who by co-incidence (?) also held the patent on hemp's new artificial rival, Nylon.

The consequences of America going down this road have been felt in rainforests the world over in succeeding decades. Australia, still in a phase of political and cultural insecurity, followed blindly on "the shirt-tails" of this immoral conspiracy by the leading capitalists of the pre-war era. Little, if any, research has been carried out into these issues "down under".
アメリカがこの道を選んだ事は其の後の何十年間、世界中の雨林に影響を与えた。未だに政治的文化的に自信の無いオーストラリアは盲目的に("the shirt-tails")ザシャツテイルの様な不道徳な戦前の支配的資本家の陰謀に追随した。オーストラリア"down under".ではこの問題については殆ど研究がなされていない。

the shirt-tails 19世紀、ニューヨーク、マンハッタンのFive Pointsファイヴポインツスのスラムを拠点としたギャンググループの名前。メンバーの印として、シャツをズボン中に入れず着用した事が名前の由来。

down under オーストラリアの別名。

 処で、ヘンリー フォードは元々アルコールを燃料と考えていて、ディーゼルエンジンを開発したルドルフ ディーゼルも植物オイルを燃料に想定してディーゼルエンジンを開発、1900年のワールドフェアではピーナッツオイルを燃料にエンジンを始動させたのです。フォードは植物から作られるプラスチックで車体を作る事を最初から研究し、大豆からプラスチックを製造し、麻も繊維やオイル等がプラスチック、燃料の原料とされ1941年には植物プラスチックで車体が作られた自動車を完成したのですが、どう言う訳か突然植物から自動車を作り植物燃料を使う計画を放棄したそうです。理由は不明だそうです。
          と言う cannabis hemp dot info episode #2 タイトルです。


Ralph Nader ラルフ ネイダー曰く

Many corporate officials share a common, perverse outlook. To them, the globe is viewed primarily as a common market and capital source. Governments, laws and democracy are inconvenient factors that restrict their exploitation and limit their profit. From their perspective, the goal is to eliminate market barriers on a global scale. From any other humane perspective, such barriers are seen as valued safeguards established to protect a nation's population ...

ウイキペディア より。
the United States Government does not distinguish between marijuana and non-psychoactive Cannabis used for industrial and commercial purposes.

にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ


Native Blood: The Myth of Thanksgiving

Revolutionary Worker #883, November 24, 1996

Every schoolchild in the U.S. has been taught that the Pilgrims of the Plymouth Colony invited the local Indians to a major harvest feast after surviving their first bitter year in New England. But the real history of Thanksgiving is a story of the murder of indigenous people and the theft of their land by European colonialists--and of the ruthless ways of capitalism.

* * * * *
In mid-winter 1620 the English ship Mayflower landed on the North American coast, delivering 102 Puritan exiles. The original Native people of this stretch of shoreline had already been killed off. In 1614 a British expedition had landed there. When they left they took 24 Indians as slaves and left smallpox behind. Three years of plague wiped out between 90 and 96 percent of the inhabitants of the coast, destroying most villages completely.


The Puritans landed and built their colony called "the Plymouth Plantation" near the deserted ruins of the Indian village of Pawtuxet. They ate from abandoned cornfields grown wild. Only one Pawtuxet named Squanto had survived--he had spent the last years as a slave to the English and Spanish in Europe. Squanto spoke the colonists' language and taught them how to plant corn and how to catch fish until the first harvest. Squanto also helped the colonists negotiate a peace treaty with the nearby Wampanoag tribe, led by the chief Massasoit.


These were very lucky breaks for the colonists. The first Virginia settlement had been wiped out before they could establish themselves. Thanks to the good will of the Wampanoag, the Puritans not only survived their first year but had an alliance with the Wampanoags that would give them almost two decades of peace.


John Winthrop, a founder of the Massahusetts Bay colony considered this wave of illness and death to be a divine miracle. He wrote to a friend in England, "But for the natives in these parts, God hath so pursued them, as for 300 miles space the greatest part of them are swept away by smallpox which still continues among them. So as God hath thereby cleared our title to this place, those who remain in these parts, being in all not 50, have put themselves under our protection."
The deadly impact of European diseases and the good will of the Wampanoag allowed the Puritans to survive their first year.
In celebration of their good fortune, the colony's governor, William Bradford, declared a three-day feast of thanksgiving after that first harvest of 1621.

How the Puritans Stole the Land

But the peace that produced the Thanksgiving Feast of 1621 meant that the Puritans would have 15 years to establish a firm foothold on the coast. Until 1629 there were no more than 300 Puritans in New England, scattered in small and isolated settlements. But their survival inspired a wave of Puritan invasion that soon established growing Massachusetts towns north of Plymouth: Boston and Salem. For 10 years, boatloads of new settlers came.
And as the number of Europeans increased, they proved not nearly so generous as the Wampanoags.


On arrival, the Puritans discussed "who legally owns all this land." They had to decide this, not just because of Anglo-Saxon traditions, but because their particular way of farming was based on individual--not communal or tribal--ownership. This debate over land ownership reveals that bourgeois "rule of law" does not mean "protect the rights of the masses of people."


Some Puritans argued that the land belonged to the Indians. These forces were excommunicated and expelled. Massachusetts Governor Winthrop declared the Indians had not "subdued" the land, and therefore all uncultivated lands should, according to English Common Law, be considered "public domain." This meant they belonged to the king. In short, the colonists decided they did not need to consult the Indians when they seized new lands, they only had to consult the representative of the crown (meaning the local governor).


The Puritans embraced a line from Psalms 2:8. "Ask of me, and I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession." Since then, European settler states have similarly declared god their real estate agent: from the Boers seizing South Africa to the Zionists seizing Palestine.


Zionists シオニスト:オーストラリアのユダヤ人によって提唱されたパレスチナにユダヤ教徒の為の国家を築く民族運動。第二次世界大戦後イスラエルを建国した。然し、伝統的なユダヤ教徒によるとイスラエル建国以前にメシヤが出現しなかったのでイスラエルは地上でのユダヤ教徒の国家ではないと言う。

The European immigrants took land and enslaved Indians to help them farm it. By 1637 there were about 2,000 British settlers. They pushed out from the coast and decided to remove the inhabitants.


The Birth of"The American Way of War"

In the Connecticut Valley, the powerful Pequot tribe had not entered an alliance with the British (as had the Narragansett, the Wampanoag, and the Massachusetts peoples). At first they were far from the centers of colonization. Then, in 1633, the British stole the land where the city of Hartford now sits--land which the Pequot had recently conquered from another tribe. That same year two British slave raiders were killed. The colonists demanded that the Indians who killed the slavers be turned over. The Pequot refused.


The Puritan preachers said, from Romans 13:2, "Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation." The colonial governments gathered an armed force of 240 under the command of John Mason. They were joined by a thousand Narragansett warriors. The historian Francis Jennings writes: "Mason proposed to avoid attacking Pequot warriors which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is only one of the ways to destroy an enemy's will to fight. Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective."


The colonist army surrounded a fortified Pequot village on the Mystic River. At sunrise, as the inhabitants slept, the Puritan soldiers set the village on fire.


William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth, wrote: "Those that escaped the fire were slain with the sword; some hewed to pieces, others run through with their rapiers, so that they were quickly dispatched and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fire...horrible was the stink and scent thereof, but the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice, and they gave the prayers thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them."


Mason himself wrote: "It may be demanded...Should not Christians have more mercy and compassion? But...sometimes the Scripture declareth women and children must perish with their parents.... We had sufficient light from the word of God for our proceedings."


Three hundred and fifty years later the Puritan phrase "a shining city on the hill" became a favorite quote of Ronald Reagan's speechwriters.


Discovering theProfits of Slavery

This so-called "Pequot war" was a one-sided murder and slaving expedition. Over 180 captives were taken. After consulting the bible again, in Leviticus 24:44, the colonial authorities found justification to kill most of the Pequot men and enslave the captured women and their children. Only 500 Pequot remained alive and free. In 1975 the official number of Pequot living in Connecticut was 21.


Some of the war captives were given to the Narragansett and Massachusetts allies of the British. Even before the arrival of Europeans, Native peoples of North America had widely practiced taking war captives from other tribes as hostages and slaves.


The remaining captives were sold to British plantation colonies in the West Indies to be worked to death in a new form of slavery that served the emerging capitalist world market. And with that, the merchants of Boston made a historic discovery: the profits they made from the sale of human beings virtually paid for the cost of seizing them.


One account says that enslaving Indians quickly became a "mania with speculators." These early merchant capitalists of Massachusetts started to make genocide pay for itself. The slave trade, first in captured Indians and soon in kidnapped Africans, quickly became a backbone of New England merchant capitalism.


Thanksgiving in theManhattan Colony

In 1641 the Dutch governor Kieft of Manhattan offered the first "scalp bounty"--his government paid money for the scalp of each Indian brought to them. A couple years later, Kieft ordered the massacre of the Wappingers, a friendly tribe. Eighty were killed and their severed heads were kicked like soccer balls down the streets of Manhattan. One captive was castrated, skinned alive and forced to eat his own flesh while the Dutch governor watched and laughed. Then Kieft hired the notorious Underhill who had commanded in the Pequot war to carry out a similar massacre near Stamford, Connecticut. The village was set fire, and 500 Indian residents were put to the sword.


A day of thanksgiving was proclaimed in the churches of Manhattan. As we will see, the European colonists declared Thanksgiving Days to celebrate mass murder more often than they did for harvest and friendship.


The Conquest of New England

By the 1670s there were about 30,000 to 40,000 white inhabitants in the United New England Colonies--6,000 to 8,000 able to bear arms. With the Pequot destroyed, the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonists turned on the Wampanoag, the tribe that had saved them in 1620 and probably joined them for the original Thanksgiving Day.

In 1675 a Christian Wampanoag was killed while spying for the Puritans. The Plymouth authorities arrested and executed three Wampanoag without consulting the tribal chief, King Philip.


As Mao Tsetung says: "Where there is oppression there is resistance." The Wampanoag went to war.


The Indians applied some military lessons they had learned: they waged a guerrilla war which overran isolated European settlements and were often able to inflict casualties on the Puritan soldiers. The colonists again attacked and massacred the main Indian populations.


When this war ended, 600 European men, one-eleventh of the adult men of the New England Colonies, had been killed in battle. Hundreds of homes and 13 settlements had been wiped out. But the colonists won.


In their victory, the settlers launched an all-out genocide against the remaining Native people. The Massachusetts government offered 20 shillings bounty for every Indian scalp, and 40 shillings for every prisoner who could be sold into slavery. Soldiers were allowed to enslave any Indian woman or child under 14 they could capture. The "Praying Indians" who had converted to Christianity and fought on the side of the European troops were accused of shooting into the treetops during battles with "hostiles." They were enslaved or killed. Other "peaceful" Indians of Dartmouth and Dover were invited to negotiate or seek refuge at trading posts--and were sold onto slave ships.


It is not known how many Indians were sold into slavery, but in this campaign, 500 enslaved Indians were shipped from Plymouth alone. Of the 12,000 Indians in the surrounding tribes, probably about half died from battle, massacre and starvation.


After King Philip's War, there were almost no Indians left free in the northern British colonies. A colonist wrote from Manhattan's New York colony: "There is now but few Indians upon the island and those few no ways hurtful. It is to be admired how strangely they have decreased by the hand of God, since the English first settled in these parts."


In Massachusetts, the colonists declared a "day of public thanksgiving" in 1676, saying, "there now scarce remains a name or family of them [the Indians] but are either slain, captivated or fled."


Fifty-five years after the original Thanksgiving Day, the Puritans had destroyed the generous Wampanoag and all other neighboring tribes. The Wampanoag chief King Philip was beheaded. His head was stuck on a pole in Plymouth, where the skull still hung on display 24 years later.


The descendants of these Native peoples are found wherever the Puritan merchant capitalists found markets for slaves: the West Indies, the Azures, Algiers, Spain and England. The grandson of Massasoit, the Pilgrim's original protector, was sold into slavery in Bermuda.

Runaways and Rebels

But even the destruction of Indian tribal life and the enslavement of survivors brought no peace. Indians continued to resist in every available way. Their oppressors lived in terror of a revolt. And they searched for ways to end the resistance. The historian MacLeod writes: "The first `reservations' were designed for the `wild' Irish of Ulster in 1609. And the first Indian reservation agent in America, Gookin of Massachusetts, like many other American immigrants had seen service in Ireland under Cromwell."



The enslaved Indians refused to work and ran away. The Massachusetts government tried to control runaways by marking enslaved Indians: brands were burnt into their skin, and symbols were tattooed into their foreheads and cheeks.


A Massachusetts law of 1695 gave colonists permission to kill Indians at will, declaring it was "lawful for any person, whether English or Indian, that shall find any Indians traveling or skulking in any of the towns or roads (within specified limits), to command them under their guard and examination, or to kill them as they may or can."



The northern colonists enacted more and more laws for controlling the people. A law in Albany forbade any African or Indian slave from driving a cart within the city. Curfews were set up; Africans and Indians were forbidden to have evening get-togethers. On Block Island, Indians were given 10 lashes for being out after nine o'clock. In 1692 Massachusetts made it a serious crime for any white person to marry an African, an Indian or a mulatto. In 1706 they tried to stop the importation of Indian slaves from other colonies, fearing a slave revolt.



Looking at this history raises a question: Why should anyone celebrate the survival of the earliest Puritans with a Thanksgiving Day? Certainly the Native peoples of those times had no reason to celebrate.


A little known fact: Squanto, the so-called "hero" of the original Thanksgiving Day, was executed by the Indians for his treacheries.


But the ruling powers of the United States organized people to celebrate Thanksgiving Day because it is in their interest. That's why they created it. The first national celebration of Thanksgiving was called for by George Washington. And the celebration was made a regular legal holiday later by Abraham Lincoln during the civil war (right as he sent troops to suppress the Sioux of Minnesota).


Washington and Lincoln were two presidents deeply involved in trying to forge a unified bourgeois nation-state out of the European settlers in the United States. And the Thanksgiving story was a useful myth in their efforts at U.S. nation-building. It celebrates the "bounty of the American way of life," while covering up the brutal nature of this society.

This article is posted in English and Spanish on Revolutionary Worker Online

ejnews:この感謝祭についての記事は“革命的労働者オンライン”と言うサイトの記事です。ejnewsの感謝祭の歴史観と上記の記事の歴史観が同一と言う事でははありません。然し.....................................“歴史は勝者が書く”と言うのは有名な言葉ですが、George Orwell ジョージオーウェルはこう言い残しています。
Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.



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Thanksgiving Day Celebrates A Massacre

Research compiled, October 19, 1990
by Johyn Westcott and Paul Apidaca
Copyright © 1990 Westcott/Apidaca
All Rights Reserved
William B. Newell, a Penobscot Indian and former chairman of the Anthropology department at the University of Connecticut, says that the first official Thanksgiving Day celebrated the massacre of 700 Indian men, women and children during one of their religious ceremonies. "Thanksgiving Day" was first proclaimed by the Governor of the then Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637 to commemorate the massacre of 700 men, women and children who were celebrating their annual Green Corn Dance...Thanksgiving Day to the, "in their own house", Newell stated.

ぺノブスコット インデアンで元コネチカット大学考古学部学部長のウイリアム B ニューエルは一番最初の公式の感謝祭は700人のインデアンの男女子供達を彼等の宗教儀式の日に虐殺した事を祝って行われたと言っている。感謝祭は毎年行われる感謝祭の“緑の玉蜀黍踊り”を彼等の家の中で祝っている700人の男女子供の虐殺を記念して1637年にマサチューセッツ湾植民地知事によって最初に宣言された。とニューエル氏は述べた。

"Gathered in this place of meeting, they were attacked by mercenaries and English and Dutch. The Indians were ordered from the building and as they came forth were shot down, The rest were burned alive in the building-----The very next day the governor declared a Thanksgiving Day.....For the next 100 years, every Thanksgiving Day ordained by a Governor was in honor of the bloody victory, thinking God that the battle had been won."


In June 1637 John Underhill slaughtered a pequot village in just the manner described above. Narranganset Indians were used as the mercenaries. Governor John Endicott of the Massachusetts Bay Colony proclaimed the pequot war. A pequot chief of sachem named sassacus warred against the Dutch in 1633 over the death of his father. The pequot made no distinction between the Dutch and the English. The Underhill massacre was witnessed and documented by William Branford and an engraving was made illustration the massacre.


The Jamestown Colony may be the source for the tradition of Indians under the leadership of Powhaton joining with early settlers for a dinner and helping those settlers through the winter. There were no pilgrims of puritans at Jamestown, however. The present Thanksgiving may therefore be a mixture of the tradition of the Jamestown dinner and the commemoration of the Pequot massacre.


The celebration of Thanksgiving as an official holiday possibly roots in the Pequot massacre, while the imagery is of Jamestown with pilgrims, images misused.


The Pilgrims Ate Turkey

What did the Pilgrims eat at their Thanksgiving festival? They didn't have corn on the cob, apples, pears, potatoes or even cranberries. No one knows if they had turkey, although they were used to eating turkey. The only food we know they had for sure was deer. 11(And they didn't eat with a fork; they didn't have forks back then.)


So how did we get the idea that you have turkey and cranberry and such on Thanksgiving? It was because the Victorians prepared Thanksgiving that way. And they're the ones who made Thanksgiving a national holiday, beginning in 1863, when Abe Lincoln issued his presidential Thanksgiving proclamations...two of them: one to celebrate Thanksgiving in August, a second one in November. Before Lincoln Americans outside New England did not usually celebrate the holiday. (The Pilgrims, incidentally, didn't become part of the holiday until late in the nineteenth century. Until then, Thanksgiving was simply a day of thanks, not a day to remember the Pilgrims.)

じゃあ如何して七面鳥とクランベリーやその様な物を感謝祭に食べるなんてアイデアを思い付いたんだろう?其れはビクトリア時代の人々が感謝祭(の食べ物)をその様に料理したからなんだ。そして(ビクトリア時代の)彼等が感謝祭を国の祝日にしたんです。其れはエイブラハム リンカーンが感謝祭大統領宣言…………..二つの………..をした1963年に始まり、一つの感謝祭を8月に、二つ目を11月にお祝いする事でした。リンカーン以前はアメリカ人はニューイングランド以外ではこの祝日を普通祝っていなかったんです。(ちなみに、ピルグリムは19世紀の後半までこの祝日の一部になりませんでした。其の時まで、感謝祭はピルグリムを記念してのお祝いではなく、単に感謝の日でした。)

The Pilgrims Landed on Plymouth Rock

According to historian George Willison, who devoted his life to the subject, the story about the rock is all malarkey, a public relations stunt pulled off by townsfolk to attract attention. What Willison found out is that the Plymouth Rock legend rests entirely on the dubious testimony of Thomas Faunce, a ninety-five year old man, who told the story more than a century after the Mayflower landed. Unfortunately, not too many people ever heard how we came by the story of Plymouth Rock. Willison's book came out at the end of World War II and Americans had more on their minds than Pilgrims then. So we've all just gone merrily along repeating the same old story as if it's true when it's not. And anyway, the Pilgrims didn't land in Plymouth first. They first made landfall at Provincetown. Of course, the people of Plymouth stick by hoary tradition. Tour guides insist that Plymouth Rock is THE rock.


Pilgrims, Puritans -- Same Thing

Though even presidents get this wrong -- Ronald Reagan once referred to Puritan John Winthrop as a Pilgrim -- Pilgrims and Puritans were two different groups. The Pilgrims came over on the Mayflower and lived in Plymouth. The Puritans, arriving a decade later, settled in Boston. The Pilgrims welcomed heterogeneousness. Some (so-called "strangers") came to America in search of riches, others (so-called "saints") came for religious reasons. The Puritans, in contrast, came over to America strictly in search of religious freedom. Or, to be technically correct, they came over in order to be able to practice their religion freely. They did not welcome dissent. That we confuse Pilgrims and Puritans would have horrified both. Puritans considered the Pilgrims incurable utopians. While both shared the belief that the Church of England had become corrupt, only the Pilgrims believed it was beyond redemption. They therefore chose the path of Separatism. Puritans held out the hope the church would reform.


Ejnews: と言う事でした。アメリカ合衆国の歴史、文化、彼等の内面を垣間見る機会だと思いますので次回も感謝祭についての記事を翻訳してみる予定ですがどうなります事やら...........................?



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