ejnews: 今日の翻訳文は1933年の当時退役米海兵隊将軍だったスメドレイ バトラーの有名な戦争を利用して法外な利益を得る資本層を非難したスピーチでありまする。彼は当時最も有名な軍人の一人で海兵隊出の初めての将軍、退役後平和活動家としてアメリカ中で講演した事も有名でありまするが、A military-industrial complex (MIC)軍事産業複合体と言う言葉を使い軍需関係産業を非難したアイゼンハウワー大統領のテレビ放送スピーチは1961年であるのですからバトラーは殆ど30年前に既に企業が戦争の原因で有る事を警告していたと言う事でありまする。( 参考http://eigonihongonews.blog110.fc2.com/blog-entry-166.html )此の『WAR IS A RACKET戦争は詐欺だ!』と呼ばれているスピーチは第一次世界大戦と第二次世界大戦の丁度中間期に為されている事を考慮に入れて読んで頂くと此のスピーチがより良く理解して頂けると重いまする。
 残念ながら、スメドレイ バトラー将軍の活動はヘレン ケラーがソシャリストだった事が全く現在のアメリカ人によって忘れ去られている様に(参照 http://eigonihongonews.blog110.fc2.com/blog-entry-83.html  )其の他の多くの平和的、進歩的思想を持ち米社会改革に努力した人々同様(米社会の支配者層によって意図的に)一般大衆の記憶から抹殺されているのでありまする。


Excerpt from a speech delivered in 1933 by General Smedley Butler, USMC

War is just a racket. There are only two things we should fight for. One is the defense of our homes and the other is the Bill of Rights. War for any other reason is simply a racket.

It may seem odd for me, a military man to adopt such a comparison. Truthfulness compels me to. I spent thirty-three years and four months in active military service as a member of this country's most agile military force, the Marine Corps. I served in all commissioned ranks from Second Lieutenant to Major-General. And during that period, I spent most of my time being a high class muscle-man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers.

I suspected I was just part of a racket at the time. Now I am sure of it. Like all the members of the military profession, I never had a thought of my own until I left the service. My mental faculties remained in suspended animation while I obeyed the orders of higher-ups. This is typical with everyone in the military service.

I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefits of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916. In China I helped to see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested.

During those years, I had, as the boys in the back room would say, a swell racket. Looking back on it, I feel that I could have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.


~ Chapter One ~

WAR is a racket. It always has been.
It is possibly the oldest, easily the most profitable, surely the most vicious. It is the only one international in scope. It is the only one in which the profits are reckoned in dollars and the losses in lives.

A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of the people. Only a small "inside" group knows what it is about. It is conducted for the benefit of the very few, at the expense of the very many. Out of war a few people make huge fortunes.

"inside" group 此処での“インサイドグループ”は当然戦争を起こし、其の理由を知っている、そして利益を得る企業や株主、政治家達のことです。

In the World War a mere handful garnered the profits of the conflict. At least 21,000 new millionaires and billionaires were made in the United States during the World War. That many admitted their huge blood gains in their income tax returns. How many other war millionaires falsified their tax returns no one knows.

How many of these war millionaires shouldered a rifle? How many of them dug a trench? How many of them knew what it meant to go hungry in a rat-infested dug-out? How many of them spent sleepless, frightened nights, ducking shells and shrapnel and machine gun bullets? How many of them parried a bayonet thrust of an enemy? How many of them were wounded or killed in battle?


Out of war nations acquire additional territory, if they are victorious. They just take it. This newly acquired territory promptly is exploited by the few – the selfsame few who wrung dollars out of blood in the war. The general public shoulders the bill.

And what is this bill?

This bill renders a horrible accounting. Newly placed gravestones. Mangled bodies. Shattered minds. Broken hearts and homes. Economic instability. Depression and all its attendant miseries. Back-breaking taxation for generations and generations.

For a great many years, as a soldier, I had a suspicion that war was a racket; not until I retired to civil life did I fully realize it. Now that I see the international war clouds gathering, as they are today, I must face it and speak out.

Again they are choosing sides. France and Russia met and agreed to stand side by side. Italy and Austria hurried to make a similar agreement. Poland and Germany cast sheep's eyes at each other, forgetting for the nonce [one unique occasion], their dispute over the Polish Corridor.

The assassination of King Alexander of Jugoslavia [Yugoslavia] complicated matters. Jugoslavia and Hungary, long bitter enemies, were almost at each other's throats. Italy was ready to jump in. But France was waiting. So was Czechoslovakia. All of them are looking ahead to war. Not the people – not those who fight and pay and die – only those who foment wars and remain safely at home to profit.

There are 40,000,000 men under arms in the world today, and our statesmen and diplomats have the temerity to say that war is not in the making.

Hell's bells! Are these 40,000,000 men being trained to be dancers?

Not in Italy, to be sure. Premier Mussolini knows what they are being trained for. He, at least, is frank enough to speak out. Only the other day, Il Duce in "International Conciliation," the publication of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, said:

"And above all, Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace... War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the people who have the courage to meet it."

Undoubtedly Mussolini means exactly what he says. His well-trained army, his great fleet of planes, and even his navy are ready for war – anxious for it, apparently. His recent stand at the side of Hungary in the latter's dispute with Jugoslavia showed that. And the hurried mobilization of his troops on the Austrian border after the assassination of Dollfuss showed it too. There are others in Europe too whose sabre rattling presages war, sooner or later.

Herr Hitler, with his rearming Germany and his constant demands for more and more arms, is an equal if not greater menace to peace. France only recently increased the term of military service for its youth from a year to eighteen months.

Yes, all over, nations are camping in their arms. The mad dogs of Europe are on the loose. In the Orient the maneuvering is more adroit. Back in 1904, when Russia and Japan fought, we kicked out our old friends the Russians and backed Japan. Then our very generous international bankers were financing Japan. Now the trend is to poison us against the Japanese. What does the "open door" policy to China mean to us? Our trade with China is about $90,000,000 a year. Or the Philippine Islands? We have spent about $600,000,000 in the Philippines in thirty-five years and we (our bankers and industrialists and speculators) have private investments there of less than $200,000,000.

Then, to save that China trade of about $90,000,000, or to protect these private investments of less than $200,000,000 in the Philippines, we would be all stirred up to hate Japan and go to war – a war that might well cost us tens of billions of dollars, hundreds of thousands of lives of Americans, and many more hundreds of thousands of physically maimed and mentally unbalanced men.

Of course, for this loss, there would be a compensating profit – fortunes would be made. Millions and billions of dollars would be piled up. By a few. Munitions makers. Bankers. Ship builders. Manufacturers. Meat packers. Speculators. They would fare well.

Yes, they are getting ready for another war. Why shouldn't they? It pays high dividends.

But what does it profit the men who are killed? What does it profit their mothers and sisters, their wives and their sweethearts? What does it profit their children?

What does it profit anyone except the very few to whom war means huge profits?

Yes, and what does it profit the nation?

Take our own case. Until 1898 we didn't own a bit of territory outside the mainland of North America. At that time our national debt was a little more than $1,000,000,000. Then we became "internationally minded." We forgot, or shunted aside, the advice of the Father of our country. We forgot George Washington's warning about "entangling alliances." We went to war. We acquired outside territory. At the end of the World War period, as a direct result of our fiddling in international affairs, our national debt had jumped to over $25,000,000,000. Our total favorable trade balance during the twenty-five-year period was about $24,000,000,000. Therefore, on a purely bookkeeping basis, we ran a little behind year for year, and that foreign trade might well have been ours without the wars.

It would have been far cheaper (not to say safer) for the average American who pays the bills to stay out of foreign entanglements. For a very few this racket, like bootlegging and other underworld rackets, brings fancy profits, but the cost of operations is always transferred to the people – who do not profit.

~ Chapter Two ~


The World War, rather our brief participation in it, has cost the United States some $52,000,000,000. Figure it out. That means $400 to every American man, woman, and child. And we haven't paid the debt yet. We are paying it, our children will pay it, and our children's children probably still will be paying the cost of that war.

The normal profits of a business concern in the United States are six, eight, ten, and sometimes twelve percent. But war-time profits – ah! that is another matter – twenty, sixty, one hundred, three hundred, and even eighteen hundred per cent – the sky is the limit. All that traffic will bear. Uncle Sam has the money. Let's get it.

Of course, it isn't put that crudely in war time. It is dressed into speeches about patriotism, love of country, and "we must all put our shoulders to the wheel," but the profits jump and leap and skyrocket – and are safely pocketed. Let's just take a few examples:

Take our friends the du Ponts, the powder people – didn't one of them testify before a Senate committee recently that their powder won the war? Or saved the world for democracy? Or something? How did they do in the war? They were a patriotic corporation. Well, the average earnings of the du Ponts for the period 1910 to 1914 were $6,000,000 a year. It wasn't much, but the du Ponts managed to get along on it. Now let's look at their average yearly profit during the war years, 1914 to 1918. Fifty-eight million dollars a year profit we find! Nearly ten times that of normal times, and the profits of normal times were pretty good. An increase in profits of more than 950 per cent.

Take one of our little steel companies that patriotically shunted aside the making of rails and girders and bridges to manufacture war materials. Well, their 1910-1914 yearly earnings averaged $6,000,000. Then came the war. And, like loyal citizens, Bethlehem Steel promptly turned to munitions making. Did their profits jump – or did they let Uncle Sam in for a bargain? Well, their 1914-1918 average was $49,000,000 a year!

Or, let's take United States Steel. The normal earnings during the five-year period prior to the war were $105,000,000 a year. Not bad. Then along came the war and up went the profits. The average yearly profit for the period 1914-1918 was $240,000,000. Not bad.

There you have some of the steel and powder earnings. Let's look at something else. A little copper, perhaps. That always does well in war times.

Anaconda, for instance. Average yearly earnings during the pre-war years 1910-1914 of $10,000,000. During the war years 1914-1918 profits leaped to $34,000,000 per year.

Or Utah Copper. Average of $5,000,000 per year during the 1910-1914 period. Jumped to an average of $21,000,000 yearly profits for the war period.
Let's group these five, with three smaller companies. The total yearly average profits of the pre-war period 1910-1914 were $137,480,000. Then along came the war. The average yearly profits for this group skyrocketed to $408,300,000.

A little increase in profits of approximately 200 per cent.

Does war pay? It paid them. But they aren't the only ones. There are still others. Let's take leather.

For the three-year period before the war the total profits of Central Leather Company were $3,500,000. That was approximately $1,167,000 a year. Well, in 1916 Central Leather returned a profit of $15,000,000, a small increase of 1,100 per cent. That's all. The General Chemical Company averaged a profit for the three years before the war of a little over $800,000 a year. Came the war, and the profits jumped to $12,000,000. a leap of 1,400 per cent.

International Nickel Company – and you can't have a war without nickel – showed an increase in profits from a mere average of $4,000,000 a year to $73,000,000 yearly. Not bad? An increase of more than 1,700 per cent.

American Sugar Refining Company averaged $2,000,000 a year for the three years before the war. In 1916 a profit of $6,000,000 was recorded.

Listen to Senate Document No. 259. The Sixty-Fifth Congress, reporting on corporate earnings and government revenues. Considering the profits of 122 meat packers, 153 cotton manufacturers, 299 garment makers, 49 steel plants, and 340 coal producers during the war. Profits under 25 per cent were exceptional. For instance the coal companies made between 100 per cent and 7,856 per cent on their capital stock during the war. The Chicago packers doubled and tripled their earnings.

And let us not forget the bankers who financed the great war. If anyone had the cream of the profits it was the bankers. Being partnerships rather than incorporated organizations, they do not have to report to stockholders. And their profits were as secret as they were immense. How the bankers made their millions and their billions I do not know, because those little secrets never become public – even before a Senate investigatory body.

But here's how some of the other patriotic industrialists and speculators chiseled their way into war profits.

Take the shoe people. They like war. It brings business with abnormal profits. They made huge profits on sales abroad to our allies. Perhaps, like the munitions manufacturers and armament makers, they also sold to the enemy. For a dollar is a dollar whether it comes from Germany or from France. But they did well by Uncle Sam too. For instance, they sold Uncle Sam 35,000,000 pairs of hobnailed service shoes. There were 4,000,000 soldiers. Eight pairs, and more, to a soldier. My regiment during the war had only one pair to a soldier. Some of these shoes probably are still in existence. They were good shoes. But when the war was over Uncle Sam has a matter of 25,000,000 pairs left over. Bought – and paid for. Profits recorded and pocketed.

There was still lots of leather left. So the leather people sold your Uncle Sam hundreds of thousands of McClellan saddles for the cavalry. But there wasn't any American cavalry overseas! Somebody had to get rid of this leather, however. Somebody had to make a profit in it – so we had a lot of McClellan saddles. And we probably have those yet.

Also somebody had a lot of mosquito netting. They sold your Uncle Sam 20,000,000 mosquito nets for the use of the soldiers overseas. I suppose the boys were expected to put it over them as they tried to sleep in muddy trenches – one hand scratching cooties on their backs and the other making passes at scurrying rats. Well, not one of these mosquito nets ever got to France!

Anyhow, these thoughtful manufacturers wanted to make sure that no soldier would be without his mosquito net, so 40,000,000 additional yards of mosquito netting were sold to Uncle Sam.

There were pretty good profits in mosquito netting in those days, even if there were no mosquitoes in France. I suppose, if the war had lasted just a little longer, the enterprising mosquito netting manufacturers would have sold your Uncle Sam a couple of consignments of mosquitoes to plant in France so that more mosquito netting would be in order.

Airplane and engine manufacturers felt they, too, should get their just profits out of this war. Why not? Everybody else was getting theirs. So $1,000,000,000 – count them if you live long enough – was spent by Uncle Sam in building airplane engines that never left the ground! Not one plane, or motor, out of the billion dollars worth ordered, ever got into a battle in France. Just the same the manufacturers made their little profit of 30, 100, or perhaps 300 per cent.

Undershirts for soldiers cost 14¢ [cents] to make and uncle Sam paid 30¢ to 40¢ each for them – a nice little profit for the undershirt manufacturer. And the stocking manufacturer and the uniform manufacturers and the cap manufacturers and the steel helmet manufacturers – all got theirs.

Why, when the war was over some 4,000,000 sets of equipment – knapsacks and the things that go to fill them – crammed warehouses on this side. Now they are being scrapped because the regulations have changed the contents. But the manufacturers collected their wartime profits on them – and they will do it all over again the next time.

There were lots of brilliant ideas for profit making during the war.

One very versatile patriot sold Uncle Sam twelve dozen 48-inch wrenches. Oh, they were very nice wrenches. The only trouble was that there was only one nut ever made that was large enough for these wrenches. That is the one that holds the turbines at Niagara Falls. Well, after Uncle Sam had bought them and the manufacturer had pocketed the profit, the wrenches were put on freight cars and shunted all around the United States in an effort to find a use for them. When the Armistice was signed it was indeed a sad blow to the wrench manufacturer. He was just about to make some nuts to fit the wrenches. Then he planned to sell these, too, to your Uncle Sam.

Still another had the brilliant idea that colonels shouldn't ride in automobiles, nor should they even ride on horseback. One has probably seen a picture of Andy Jackson riding in a buckboard. Well, some 6,000 buckboards were sold to Uncle Sam for the use of colonels! Not one of them was used. But the buckboard manufacturer got his war profit.

The shipbuilders felt they should come in on some of it, too. They built a lot of ships that made a lot of profit. More than $3,000,000,000 worth. Some of the ships were all right. But $635,000,000 worth of them were made of wood and wouldn't float! The seams opened up – and they sank. We paid for them, though. And somebody pocketed the profits.

It has been estimated by statisticians and economists and researchers that the war cost your Uncle Sam $52,000,000,000. Of this sum, $39,000,000,000 was expended in the actual war itself. This expenditure yielded $16,000,000,000 in profits. That is how the 21,000 billionaires and millionaires got that way. This $16,000,000,000 profits is not to be sneezed at. It is quite a tidy sum. And it went to a very few.

The Senate (Nye) committee probe of the munitions industry and its wartime profits, despite its sensational disclosures, hardly has scratched the surface.

Even so, it has had some effect. The State Department has been studying "for some time" methods of keeping out of war. The War Department suddenly decides it has a wonderful plan to spring. The Administration names a committee – with the War and Navy Departments ably represented under the chairmanship of a Wall Street speculator – to limit profits in war time. To what extent isn't suggested. Hmmm. Possibly the profits of 300 and 600 and 1,600 per cent of those who turned blood into gold in the World War would be limited to some smaller figure.

Apparently, however, the plan does not call for any limitation of losses – that is, the losses of those who fight the war. As far as I have been able to ascertain there is nothing in the scheme to limit a soldier to the loss of but one eye, or one arm, or to limit his wounds to one or two or three. Or to limit the loss of life.

There is nothing in this scheme, apparently, that says not more than 12 per cent of a regiment shall be wounded in battle, or that not more than 7 per cent in a division shall be killed.

Of course, the committee cannot be bothered with such trifling matters.

~ Chapter Three ~


Who provides the profits – these nice little profits of 20, 100, 300, 1,500 and 1,800 per cent? We all pay them – in taxation. We paid the bankers their profits when we bought Liberty Bonds at $100.00 and sold them back at $84 or $86 to the bankers. These bankers collected $100 plus. It was a simple manipulation. The bankers control the security marts. It was easy for them to depress the price of these bonds. Then all of us – the people – got frightened and sold the bonds at $84 or $86. The bankers bought them. Then these same bankers stimulated a boom and government bonds went to par – and above. Then the bankers collected their profits.

But the soldier pays the biggest part of the bill.

If you don't believe this, visit the American cemeteries on the battlefields abroad. Or visit any of the veteran's hospitals in the United States. On a tour of the country, in the midst of which I am at the time of this writing, I have visited eighteen government hospitals for veterans. In them are a total of about 50,000 destroyed men – men who were the pick of the nation eighteen years ago. The very able chief surgeon at the government hospital; at Milwaukee, where there are 3,800 of the living dead, told me that mortality among veterans is three times as great as among those who stayed at home.

Boys with a normal viewpoint were taken out of the fields and offices and factories and classrooms and put into the ranks. There they were remolded; they were made over; they were made to "about face"; to regard murder as the order of the day. They were put shoulder to shoulder and, through mass psychology, they were entirely changed. We used them for a couple of years and trained them to think nothing at all of killing or of being killed.

Then, suddenly, we discharged them and told them to make another "about face" ! This time they had to do their own readjustment, sans [without] mass psychology, sans officers' aid and advice and sans nation-wide propaganda. We didn't need them any more. So we scattered them about without any "three-minute" or "Liberty Loan" speeches or parades. Many, too many, of these fine young boys are eventually destroyed, mentally, because they could not make that final "about face" alone.

In the government hospital in Marion, Indiana, 1,800 of these boys are in pens! Five hundred of them in a barracks with steel bars and wires all around outside the buildings and on the porches. These already have been mentally destroyed. These boys don't even look like human beings. Oh, the looks on their faces! Physically, they are in good shape; mentally, they are gone.

There are thousands and thousands of these cases, and more and more are coming in all the time. The tremendous excitement of the war, the sudden cutting off of that excitement – the young boys couldn't stand it.

That's a part of the bill. So much for the dead – they have paid their part of the war profits. So much for the mentally and physically wounded – they are paying now their share of the war profits. But the others paid, too – they paid with heartbreaks when they tore themselves away from their firesides and their families to don the uniform of Uncle Sam – on which a profit had been made. They paid another part in the training camps where they were regimented and drilled while others took their jobs and their places in the lives of their communities. The paid for it in the trenches where they shot and were shot; where they were hungry for days at a time; where they slept in the mud and the cold and in the rain – with the moans and shrieks of the dying for a horrible lullaby.

But don't forget – the soldier paid part of the dollars and cents bill too.

Up to and including the Spanish-American War, we had a prize system, and soldiers and sailors fought for money. During the Civil War they were paid bonuses, in many instances, before they went into service. The government, or states, paid as high as $1,200 for an enlistment. In the Spanish-American War they gave prize money. When we captured any vessels, the soldiers all got their share – at least, they were supposed to. Then it was found that we could reduce the cost of wars by taking all the prize money and keeping it, but conscripting [drafting] the soldier anyway. Then soldiers couldn't bargain for their labor, Everyone else could bargain, but the soldier couldn't.

Napoleon once said,
"All men are enamored of decorations...they positively hunger for them."

So by developing the Napoleonic system – the medal business – the government learned it could get soldiers for less money, because the boys liked to be decorated. Until the Civil War there were no medals. Then the Congressional Medal of Honor was handed out. It made enlistments easier. After the Civil War no new medals were issued until the Spanish-American War.

In the World War, we used propaganda to make the boys accept conscription. They were made to feel ashamed if they didn't join the army.

So vicious was this war propaganda that even God was brought into it. With few exceptions our clergymen joined in the clamor to kill, kill, kill. To kill the Germans. God is on our side...it is His will that the Germans be killed.

And in Germany, the good pastors called upon the Germans to kill the allies...to please the same God. That was a part of the general propaganda, built up to make people war conscious and murder conscious.

Beautiful ideals were painted for our boys who were sent out to die. This was the "war to end all wars." This was the "war to make the world safe for democracy." No one mentioned to them, as they marched away, that their going and their dying would mean huge war profits. No one told these American soldiers that they might be shot down by bullets made by their own brothers here. No one told them that the ships on which they were going to cross might be torpedoed by submarines built with United States patents. They were just told it was to be a "glorious adventure."

Thus, having stuffed patriotism down their throats, it was decided to make them help pay for the war, too. So, we gave them the large salary of $30 a month.

All they had to do for this munificent sum was to leave their dear ones behind, give up their jobs, lie in swampy trenches, eat canned willy (when they could get it) and kill and kill and kill...and be killed.

canned willy キャンドウイリー:アルゼンチンから輸入された缶詰肉、製造される時に既に腐っている肉が使われた。

But wait!

Half of that wage (just a little more than a riveter in a shipyard or a laborer in a munitions factory safe at home made in a day) was promptly taken from him to support his dependents, so that they would not become a charge upon his community. Then we made him pay what amounted to accident insurance – something the employer pays for in an enlightened state – and that cost him $6 a month. He had less than $9 a month left.

Then, the most crowning insolence of all – he was virtually blackjacked into paying for his own ammunition, clothing, and food by being made to buy Liberty Bonds. Most soldiers got no money at all on pay days.

We made them buy Liberty Bonds at $100 and then we bought them back – when they came back from the war and couldn't find work – at $84 and $86. And the soldiers bought about $2,000,000,000 worth of these bonds!

Yes, the soldier pays the greater part of the bill. His family pays too. They pay it in the same heart-break that he does. As he suffers, they suffer. At nights, as he lay in the trenches and watched shrapnel burst about him, they lay home in their beds and tossed sleeplessly – his father, his mother, his wife, his sisters, his brothers, his sons, and his daughters.

When he returned home minus an eye, or minus a leg or with his mind broken, they suffered too – as much as and even sometimes more than he. Yes, and they, too, contributed their dollars to the profits of the munitions makers and bankers and shipbuilders and the manufacturers and the speculators made. They, too, bought Liberty Bonds and contributed to the profit of the bankers after the Armistice in the hocus-pocus of manipulated Liberty Bond prices.

And even now the families of the wounded men and of the mentally broken and those who never were able to readjust themselves are still suffering and still paying.

~ Chapter Four ~


WELL, it's a racket, all right.
A few profit – and the many pay. But there is a way to stop it. You can't end it by disarmament conferences. You can't eliminate it by peace parleys at Geneva. Well-meaning but impractical groups can't wipe it out by resolutions. It can be smashed effectively only by taking the profit out of war.

The only way to smash this racket is to conscript capital and industry and labor before the nations manhood can be conscripted. One month before the Government can conscript the young men of the nation – it must conscript capital and industry and labor. Let the officers and the directors and the high-powered executives of our armament factories and our munitions makers and our shipbuilders and our airplane builders and the manufacturers of all the other things that provide profit in war time as well as the bankers and the speculators, be conscripted – to get $30 a month, the same wage as the lads in the trenches get.

Let the workers in these plants get the same wages – all the workers, all presidents, all executives, all directors, all managers, all bankers –

yes, and all generals and all admirals and all officers and all politicians and all government office holders – everyone in the nation be restricted to a total monthly income not to exceed that paid to the soldier in the trenches!

Let all these kings and tycoons and masters of business and all those workers in industry and all our senators and governors and majors pay half of their monthly $30 wage to their families and pay war risk insurance and buy Liberty Bonds.

Why shouldn't they?

They aren't running any risk of being killed or of having their bodies mangled or their minds shattered. They aren't sleeping in muddy trenches. They aren't hungry. The soldiers are!

Give capital and industry and labor thirty days to think it over and you will find, by that time, there will be no war. That will smash the war racket – that and nothing else.

Maybe I am a little too optimistic. Capital still has some say. So capital won't permit the taking of the profit out of war until the people – those who do the suffering and still pay the price – make up their minds that those they elect to office shall do their bidding, and not that of the profiteers.

Another step necessary in this fight to smash the war racket is the limited plebiscite to determine whether a war should be declared. A plebiscite not of all the voters but merely of those who would be called upon to do the fighting and dying. There wouldn't be very much sense in having a 76-year-old president of a munitions factory or the flat-footed head of an international banking firm or the cross-eyed manager of a uniform manufacturing plant – all of whom see visions of tremendous profits in the event of war – voting on whether the nation should go to war or not. They never would be called upon to shoulder arms – to sleep in a trench and to be shot. Only those who would be called upon to risk their lives for their country should have the privilege of voting to determine whether the nation should go to war.

There is ample precedent for restricting the voting to those affected. Many of our states have restrictions on those permitted to vote. In most, it is necessary to be able to read and write before you may vote. In some, you must own property. It would be a simple matter each year for the men coming of military age to register in their communities as they did in the draft during the World War and be examined physically. Those who could pass and who would therefore be called upon to bear arms in the event of war would be eligible to vote in a limited plebiscite. They should be the ones to have the power to decide – and not a Congress few of whose members are within the age limit and fewer still of whom are in physical condition to bear arms. Only those who must suffer should have the right to vote.

A third step in this business of smashing the war racket is to make certain that our military forces are truly forces for defense only.

At each session of Congress the question of further naval appropriations comes up. The swivel-chair admirals of Washington (and there are always a lot of them) are very adroit lobbyists. And they are smart. They don't shout that "We need a lot of battleships to war on this nation or that nation." Oh no. First of all, they let it be known that America is menaced by a great naval power. Almost any day, these admirals will tell you, the great fleet of this supposed enemy will strike suddenly and annihilate 125,000,000 people. Just like that. Then they begin to cry for a larger navy. For what? To fight the enemy? Oh my, no. Oh, no. For defense purposes only.

Then, incidentally, they announce maneuvers in the Pacific. For defense. Uh, huh.

The Pacific is a great big ocean. We have a tremendous coastline on the Pacific. Will the maneuvers be off the coast, two or three hundred miles? Oh, no. The maneuvers will be two thousand, yes, perhaps even thirty-five hundred miles, off the coast.

The Japanese, a proud people, of course will be pleased beyond expression to see the united States fleet so close to Nippon's shores. Even as pleased as would be the residents of California were they to dimly discern through the morning mist, the Japanese fleet playing at war games off Los Angeles.

The ships of our navy, it can be seen, should be specifically limited, by law, to within 200 miles of our coastline. Had that been the law in 1898 the Maine would never have gone to Havana Harbor. She never would have been blown up. There would have been no war with Spain with its attendant loss of life. Two hundred miles is ample, in the opinion of experts, for defense purposes. Our nation cannot start an offensive war if its ships can't go further than 200 miles from the coastline. Planes might be permitted to go as far as 500 miles from the coast for purposes of reconnaissance. And the army should never leave the territorial limits of our nation.

To summarize: Three steps must be taken to smash the war racket.

We must take the profit out of war.

We must permit the youth of the land who would bear arms to decide whether or not there should be war.

We must limit our military forces to home defense purposes.

~ Chapter Five ~


I am not a fool as to believe that war is a thing of the past. I know the people do not want war, but there is no use in saying we cannot be pushed into another war.

Looking back, Woodrow Wilson was re-elected president in 1916 on a platform that he had "kept us out of war" and on the implied promise that he would "keep us out of war." Yet, five months later he asked Congress to declare war on Germany.

In that five-month interval the people had not been asked whether they had changed their minds. The 4,000,000 young men who put on uniforms and marched or sailed away were not asked whether they wanted to go forth to suffer and die.

Then what caused our government to change its mind so suddenly?


An allied commission, it may be recalled, came over shortly before the war declaration and called on the President. The President summoned a group of advisers. The head of the commission spoke. Stripped of its diplomatic language, this is what he told the President and his group:

"There is no use kidding ourselves any longer. The cause of the allies is lost. We now owe you (American bankers, American munitions makers, American manufacturers, American speculators, American exporters) five or six billion dollars.
If we lose (and without the help of the United States we must lose) we, England, France and Italy, cannot pay back this money...and Germany won't.


Had secrecy been outlawed as far as war negotiations were concerned, and had the press been invited to be present at that conference, or had radio been available to broadcast the proceedings, America never would have entered the World War. But this conference, like all war discussions, was shrouded in utmost secrecy. When our boys were sent off to war they were told it was a "war to make the world safe for democracy" and a "war to end all wars."

Well, eighteen years after, the world has less of democracy than it had then. Besides, what business is it of ours whether Russia or Germany or England or France or Italy or Austria live under democracies or monarchies? Whether they are Fascists or Communists? Our problem is to preserve our own democracy.

And very little, if anything, has been accomplished to assure us that the World War was really the war to end all wars.

Yes, we have had disarmament conferences and limitations of arms conferences. They don't mean a thing. One has just failed; the results of another have been nullified. We send our professional soldiers and our sailors and our politicians and our diplomats to these conferences. And what happens?

The professional soldiers and sailors don't want to disarm. No admiral wants to be without a ship. No general wants to be without a command. Both mean men without jobs. They are not for disarmament. They cannot be for limitations of arms. And at all these conferences, lurking in the background but all-powerful, just the same, are the sinister agents of those who profit by war. They see to it that these conferences do not disarm or seriously limit armaments.

The chief aim of any power at any of these conferences has not been to achieve disarmament to prevent war but rather to get more armament for itself and less for any potential foe.

There is only one way to disarm with any semblance of practicability. That is for all nations to get together and scrap every ship, every gun, every rifle, every tank, every war plane. Even this, if it were possible, would not be enough.

The next war, according to experts, will be fought not with battleships, not by artillery, not with rifles and not with machine guns. It will be fought with deadly chemicals and gases.

Secretly each nation is studying and perfecting newer and ghastlier means of annihilating its foes wholesale. Yes, ships will continue to be built, for the shipbuilders must make their profits. And guns still will be manufactured and powder and rifles will be made, for the munitions makers must make their huge profits. And the soldiers, of course, must wear uniforms, for the manufacturer must make their war profits too.

But victory or defeat will be determined by the skill and ingenuity of our scientists.

If we put them to work making poison gas and more and more fiendish mechanical and explosive instruments of destruction, they will have no time for the constructive job of building greater prosperity for all peoples. By putting them to this useful job, we can all make more money out of peace than we can out of war – even the munitions makers.

So...I say,

ejne: 如何でござりましたか?最も勇敢な兵士として称えられていた人物の批判ですから重みがあります。

Germany finally pays off First World War debt

Published: 2:53PM BST 03 Oct 2010


Germany will finally pay off the last of its debts from World War One today, the 20th anniversary of German reunification, bringing the First World War officially to a close.
The final payment of £59.5 million writes off the last of the compensation payments imposed on Germany by the Allies 91 years ago.

The Treaty of Versailles in 1919 forced Germany to pay for reparations to the war-ravaged nations of Belgium and France and to pay the Allies some of the costs of waging what was then the bloodiest conflict in history, leaving nearly ten million soldiers dead.
The initial sum agreed upon for war damages was 226 billion Reichsmarks, a sum later reduced to 132 billion, £22 billion at the time.
Most of the money goes to private individuals, pension funds and corporations holding debenture bonds as agreed under the Treaty of Versailles, where Germany was made to sign the 'war guilt' clause, accepting blame for the war.
France, which had been ravaged by the war, pushed hardest for the steepest possible fiscal punishment for Germany.
The principal representative of the British Treasury at the Paris Peace Conference, John Maynard Keynes, resigned in June 1919 in protest at the scale of the demands.
"Germany will not be able to formulate correct policy if it cannot finance itself,' he warned.
When the Wall Street Crash came in 1929, the Weimar Republic spiralled into debt. Four years later, Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany.

と言う事で今日のミュージックはボブディランのブローイング イン ザ ウインド(風の中に舞っている)でありまする。懐かしいねえ---------。

Bob Dylan - Blowin In the Wind

Blowin' In The Wind
ブローイング イン ザ ウインド(風の中に舞っている)

How many roads must a man walk down
Before you call him a man?
Yes, ’n’ how many seas must a white dove sail
Before she sleeps in the sand?
Yes, ’n’ how many times must the cannonballs fly
Before they’re forever banned?
The answer, my friend, is blowin’ in the wind
The answer is blowin’ in the wind

How many years can a mountain exist
Before it’s washed to the sea?
Yes, ’n’ how many years can some people exist
Before they’re allowed to be free?
Yes, ’n’ how many times must a man turn his head
Pretending he just doesn’t see?
The answer, my friend, is blowin’ in the wind
The answer is blowin’ in the wind

How many times must a man look up
Before he can really see the sky?
Yes, ’n’ how many ears must one man have
Before he can hear people cry?
Yes, ’n’ how many deaths will it take till he knows
That too many people have died?
The answer, my friend, is blowin’ in the wind
The answer is blowin’ in the wind

にほんブログ村 海外生活ブログ アメリカ情報へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログ 時事英語へ にほんブログ村 英語ブログへ にほんブログ村 ニュースブログ 海外ニュースへ



ejnews: 60年代の公民権運動、ヴェトナム反戦運動、文化的にはヒンドゥーや仏教の東洋思想を取り入れたヒッピーに代表されるムーヴメントによってアメリカの民主主義が若しかすると本当の民主主義になるかのように見られた1970年代からアメリカ市民が徐々に保守化又は右翼化し始め(富裕層や資本層は何時も保守又は右翼的)、現在米最高裁判所は4人の右翼活動家裁判官と1人の保守裁判官よってコントロールされ、大学では保守及び右翼思想を持つ教授達が必要以上に多く、メディアは完全に企業によって支配され、社会に影響力を持つ(詰まり資金の豊富な)シンクタンクや財団と呼ばれる団体は殆どが企業や富裕層によって資金援助されている保守若しくは右翼組織と言う事になっている現在のアメリカなのですが、此の記事の“パウエルメモ”----元米最高裁判事だったパウエル裁判官が最高裁裁判官に任命される直前に友人に当てた覚書(メモランダム)-----は当時保守、右翼、資本層、富裕層が感じ、考え計画していた事を明快に表現している事で有名です。
 パウエル裁判官は最高裁の裁判官になる以前は米商工会議所の弁護士、タバコ会社のフィリップモーリス社の取締役のメンバー、又Tobacco Institute(タバコ協会:タバコに関する不利益な科学的論文や記事に対して反論をし、又タバコと病気の因果関係を疑問視する様な記事を記者に書かせる等していたタバコ業界の業界団体。1998年に解散)は彼の所属する弁護士事務所によって弁護されていた等と企業側の代弁者だった訳ですが----------兎に角、良く読んで下さい。此の所謂現在“パウエルメモ”と呼ばれている手紙は1971年に書かれている事に注目して下さい。以降アメリカと英国で保守右翼の巻き返しが盛んになり、ハイエク等のオーストリア経済学派やミルトン フリードマンのネオリベラリズム自由市場経済主義、アインランド等のリバタリアン思想、等が保守右翼著作家達によってメディアで頻繁に取り上げられる様になり、彼等保守右翼資本層や活動家達によって現在のアメリカの状況(アメリカだけではなく英国や日本の小泉に代表される自民公明政権での政策)が造り上げられているのです。

The Powell Memo

(also known as the Powell Manifesto)



 1971年、当時企業の為の弁護士とし働き、又11企業の取締役会の委員だったルイスF.パウエルは彼の友人であった商工会議所の会長ユージーン シドノアーJrに宛てメモランダムを書き送った。メモランダムの日付は1971年8月23日でニクソン大統領によるパウエルの最高裁への指名の2ヶ月前であった。
 パウエルのメモランダムは彼の最高裁裁判官就任確定以後長くの間市民には公開されなかったが、此のメモをパウエルの司法での目的を疑問視する理由で引用し、其れ(メモ)についての社会の興味を搔き起こしたリベラル シンディケイト コラムニストであったジャック アンダーソンに漏洩した。パウエルは彼の最高裁での地位を利用してビジネスの利益の為に彼の思想を実社会で応用する可能性があるとアンダーソンは警告した。
 パウエルメモは唯一の影響では無かった物の米商工会議所と企業の活動家達は彼のアドヴァイスを真剣に受け止め公衆の態度や信条を数年間、そして何十年にも亘り変更するように考え出された強力で数多い組織を築き始めた。此のメモはHeritage Foundation(ヘリテッジ ファウンデーション)、Manhattan Institute(マンハッタン インスティチュート)、Cato Institute(カトー インスティチュート)、Citizens for a Sound Economy(正しい経済の市民)、Accuracy in Academe(教育会での正確さ)、そして他の強力な団体の創造に影響又は創造するインスピレイションを与えた。彼等の長期的な集中力はレーガン政権の“手出しをしない方針”とのコーディネイションによって1980年代に素晴らしい結果をもたらし始めた。

First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti, 435 U.S. 765 (1978),
“ナショナル バンク オブ ボストン対ベロッティ”435U.S.765(1978)とは米憲法修正第一条項(言論の自由)での企業による政治的過程に影響を与える目的の資金援助を認めた米最高裁による5対4の決定。企業を個人として認めている幾つかの米最高裁での決定。企業に個人としての権利を与える事は、犯罪捜査での黙秘権、捜査の拒否権、などを企業に与え、結果として企業の資金力による政治の腐敗、労働条件の悪化、環境汚染等の原因を作っている。

Confidential Memorandum:
Attack of American Free Enterprise System

DATE: August 23, 1971
TO: Mr. Eugene B. Sydnor, Jr., Chairman, Education Committee, U.S. Chamber of Commerce
FROM: Lewis F. Powell, Jr.
ユージーン B.シドノアー ジュニア、米商工会議所教育委員会会長宛。
ルイスF.パウエル ジュニア


Dimensions of the Attack


Sources of the Attack



Tone of the Attack 

 或る英国のロックフォード カレッジから訪問している教授はどの知的集団のメンバーが事業システムと西欧社会の価値観に対してイデオロギー戦争を戦っているかについてまで記録している“西欧社会に対するイデオロギー戦争”と題するシリーズの講義を行っている。其の講義の序文でシカゴ高名なミルトン フリードマン教授は“我々の自由社会の基礎は幅広い強力な攻撃に曝されている事は非常に明白であり、其れは共産主義者若しくは他の全ての陰謀によってではなく、御互いの意見をオウムの様に真似ている気付かずに意識的には彼等が同意支援しない目的達成の道具となっている道を誤った個人である。”と警告している。
 アメリカのビジネスに対しての最も効果的な敵対者は恐らくラルフ ネイダーであろう---------------彼は同時代の社会で伝説となり何百万人のもアメリカ人のアイドルとなった。フォーチュンの最近の或る記事はネイダーについて下記の様に語ってる。
 『彼の動機となっている情熱は---------彼は情熱的な人間であるのだが--------企業の権力と言う彼の憎しみの対象を木端微塵に打ち砕く事に向けられている。非常に多くの企業の重役達は怪しげな商品、化学添加物煮よる食品の汚染、不安全な製品の意図的な生産、による傷害や殺人によって刑務所に居るべきだとネイダーは考え又疎の様に非常に単刀直入に言っている。ネイダーは短期間だけぼろ儲けをして店仕舞いしてしまう様な詐欺会社について語っている訳ではなく、ブルーチップ ビジネス(有名な大企業)の最高上層部の事について語っていると強調している。』
 我々の政府、司法、自由事業システムに対する正面攻撃がイエール大学教授チャールズ ライシの昨冬出版され広く注目されている著書“グリーニング オブ アメリカ”によって為されている。


The Apathy and Default of Business

ウォール ストリート ジャーナルに掲載されたコラムは“GMへのメモ:如何して反撃しないのか?”と題されていて、GM宛に書かれているものの此の記事はアメリカのビジネスに対しての警告であったとコラムニストStジョンは語っている。
“一般的なアメリカのビジネス同様にジェナラルモーターズは知識的陳腐な決まり文句が其の確りとした知的視点の説明に取って代っていると言う事によって問題に巻き込まれている。”そしてSt ジョン氏はビジネスの指導者達による彼等の批判家と妥協し彼等を懐柔する傾向について語っている。彼はラルフネイダーがGMマネージメントから勝ち取った譲歩について語り『多くのビジネスマンが彼等の批判家たちに対して抱いている間違った意見』を引き合いに出している。彼は(ビジネスマンの批判家に対する反応)と同様の問題を多くの大学のアドミニストレイターの誤った手段に見出している。大学のアドミニストレイターは疎の様な懐柔策は言論の自由、学術研究や教育での自由、真のスカラシップを破壊すると言う事に気付くのが遅過ぎた。一つの大学での過激な要求が大学の指導陣によって同意され、其れは唯、新しい要求を生み出す事になり、そして全くの降伏に発展する要求に過激化していった。”


Responsibility of Business Executives

 主要企業のCEO(代表取締役)が企業の公的、社会的責任を充分に考慮に入れて、満足出来る利益の増加を確保しながら退任すると言う時代は遠の昔に過ぎ去ってしまった。若し我々のシステムが生き残るとするならば最高幹部指導陣はシステム自身の保護と保存を同等に心配しなければならない。此れは企業が長期間に亘り多額の資金を投資している2つの領域である“パブリック リレイション”若しくは“政府関係事項”へのより一層の重要視以上の物が関係しているのである。

Possible Role of the Chamber of Commerce


The Campus

 起源、源流と原因は複雑で関連していて、明らかに注意深い能力無しには見極めるのは困難ではあるのだが、大学のキャンパスが一つの最もダイナミックな起源だと言う事を信じる理由が存在する。社会科学の教授陣は一般的に(アメリカの)事業システムに賛同しないメンバーを含んでいる。彼等はカリフォルニア州立大学サンディエゴ校のマルキシストの教授メンバーで信念を持った社会主義者であるハーバート マークーザから、賞賛するよりも非難する傾向のある態度のハッキリしないリベラルな批評家まで幅広い。疎の様な教授陣のメンバーは多数者である必要はない。彼等は多くの場合個人的には魅力的で人を引き寄せる力がある。彼等は刺激的な教育者で彼等の引き起こす議論は学生を惹き付ける。彼等は多産な著作家で又講演者である。彼等は多くの教科書を書き彼等の同僚と学界で--------彼等の人数とは全く比例しない--------巨大な影響力を行使する。

What Can Be Done About the Campus


Staff of Scholars


Staff of Speakers



Speaker's Bureau


Evaluation of Textbooks


Equal Time on the Campus


Balancing of Faculties


Graduate Schools of Business


Secondary Education


What Can Be Done About the Public?




Other Media


The Scholarly Journals



Books, Paperbacks and Pamphlets

 新聞売店----------空港、薬局、そして他の場所-----------は革命からエロティックなフリーラヴを提唱しているパンフレットやペーパーバックで溢れている。我々の立場のパンフレットやペーパーバックで魅惑的で良く書かれている物は殆ど見られない。エルドリッジ クリーヴァーやチャールズ ライヒ等と読者の注目を巡って競争する事は困難であるが、努力--------ある程度の成功が保証される適切な想像力を伴った充分な規模の----------が為されない限り一般大衆を教育する機会は失われ二度とやって来ない。

Paid Advertisements


The Neglected Political Arena

 最終的分析では、見返り --------革命とまでは行かないが-------は政府の行動である。ビジネスは多くの政治化にとって長年彼等の最も好む鞭打ちされる男の子であった。然し此れがどれだけ増大したかを見る計りは恐らく数人の主導的米大統領候補の表現する反ビジネス感情の中に最も良く見かけられる。

Neglected Opportunity in the Courts

 アメリカン シヴィル リバティー ユニオン(米自由人権協会)は其の一例である。此の団体は多くの訴訟を毎年始めるか若しくは仲裁し、そして第三者として意見陳述所を数多くの訴訟で最高裁判所に提出している。労働組合、人権擁護団体そして今公益法を扱う弁護士事務所等は政治の場で極めて活動的である。多くの場合ビジネスを犠牲にして成り立っている彼等(リベラル、左翼の)の成功は重要度が低い訳ではない。

Neglected Stockholder Power


A More Aggressive Attitude

 公に我々のシステムの崩壊を狙っているラルフ ネイダーやハーバート マルクーザの様な者達や他の其の様な連中を攻撃する事に躊躇があってはならない。全ての政治的競技場で事業システムを強く圧倒する様に支持する為に少しでも躊躇があってはならず、又、(我々のシステムに)対抗する者を政治的に罰する事に対する躊躇も在ってはならない。

The Cost


Quality Control is Essential


Relationship to Freedom






Heritage Foundation(ヘリテッジ ファウンデーション)1973年
Manhattan Institute(マンハッタン インスティチュート)1978年
Cato Institute(カトー インスティチュート)1977年
Citizens for a Sound Economy(正しい経済の市民)1984年~2004年、其の後FreedomWorksとAmericans for Prosperity (AFP)に分かれる。
Accuracy in Academe(教育界での正確さ)1985年

Right Wing Watchより。
Accuracy in Academia
African-American Life Alliance
All Children Matter Inc.
Alliance Defense Fund
American Center for Law and Justice
American Civil Rights Institute
American Conservative Union
American Enterprise Institute

American Family Association
American Legislative Exchange Council

• American Life League
• American Society for Tradition, Family and Property
• Americans for Tax Reform
• Arlington Group
• Black America's Political Action Committee
• Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation
• Campaign for Working Families PAC
• Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights
• Cato Institute
• Center for the Study of Popular Culture
• Christian Coalition of America
• Christian Legal Society
• Club for Growth
• Collegiate Network
• Coalition for a Fair Judiciary
• Committee for Justice
• Concerned Women for America
• Eagle Forum
• Eagle Forum Collegians
• Family Research Council
• Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies
• Focus on the Family
• FRCAction
• Free Congress Research and Education Foundation
• FreedomWorks
• Heritage Foundation
• High Impact Leadership Coalition
• Hispanic Alliance for Progress Institute
• Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace
• Independent Women's Forum
• Institute for Justice
• Intercollegiate Studies Institute
• Judeo-Christian Council for Constitutional Restoration
• Judicial Confirmation Network
• Landmark Legal Foundation
• Leadership Institute
• Mackinac Center for Public Policy
• Madison Project
• Manhattan Institute for Policy Research
• National Association of Scholars
• National Center for Policy Analysis
• National Right to Life Committee
• National Taxpayers Union
• New Coalition for Economic and Social Change
• Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research
• State Policy Network
• Students for Academic Freedom
• Toward Tradition
• Traditional Values Coalition
• WallBuilders
• Young America's Foundation

------------と言う事で経のミュージックはCesaria Evoraセサリア エヴォラのAngolaアンゴラでござりまする。

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Halloween ハロウィーン


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Halloween, or Hallowe’en, is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, ghost tours, bonfires, costume parties, visiting "haunted houses", carving Jack-o'-lanterns, reading scary stories and watching horror movies. Irish immigrants carried versions of the tradition to North America in the nineteenth century. Other western countries embraced the holiday in the late twentieth century. Halloween is celebrated in several countries of the Western world, most commonly in the United States, Canada, Ireland, Puerto Rico, Japan, New Zealand, and occasionally in parts of Australia and the United Kingdom, . In Sweden the All Saints' official holiday takes place on the first Saturday of November.

Halloween, 若しくは Hallowe’en10月31日のよる祝われる祝日です。ハロゥィーンの夜はトリック オア トリーティング、ゴーストツアー、ボーンファイアー、コスチュームパーティー、幽霊屋敷を訪れる、ジャックオーランタンを作る、怖い話をを読み、ホラームーヴィーを見る等します。19世紀にアイルランド移民は彼等のヴァージョンの伝統を北アメリカに伝えました。他の西側の国々も20世紀後半にこの祝日を受け入れました。ハロウィーンは他の幾つかの西側の国々でも祝われています。最も一般的なのは、アメリカ合衆国、カナダ、アイルランド、プエルトリコ、日本(日本!!!本当???)ニュージーランド、そして時々オーストラリアとイギリスで祝われます。スエーデンではオールセイントデイの国で定められた祝日は11月の一番最初の土曜日です。



Halloween has its origins in the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain (Irish pronunciation: [ˈsˠaunʲ]; from the Old Irish samain).[1] The festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest season in Gaelic culture, and is sometimes [2] regarded as the "Celtic New Year".[3] Traditionally, the festival was a time used by the ancient pagans to take stock of supplies and slaughter livestock for winter stores. The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, now known as Halloween, the boundary between the alive and the deceased dissolved, and the dead become dangerous for the living by causing problems such as sickness or damaged crops. The festivals would frequently involve bonfires, into which bones of slaughtered livestock were thrown. Costumes and masks were also worn at the festivals in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or placate them.[4]


Halloween history

The custom of trick or treating probably has several origins. During Samhain, the Druids believed that the dead would play tricks on mankind and cause panic and destruction. They had to be appeased, so country folk would give the Druids food as they visited their homes.

トリック オア トリーティングの風習のには恐らく幾つかの起源があります。ソーインのお祭りの期間中にドゥルーイッドは死者が人間に悪戯をしパニックや災害を引き起こすと信じていました。彼等は宥められなければなりません。だから、田舎の人々はドゥルーイッドが彼等の家を訪れた時食べ物を与えたのです。


An old Irish peasant practice called for going door to door to collect money, breadcake, cheese, eggs, butter, apples, etc., in preparation for the festival of St. Columb Kill.

昔のアイルランドの農民は家から家へと訪れお金、ブレッドケーク、チーズ、卵、バター、林檎等をセイント コルン キルのお祭りの準備の為集めました。

Also a ninth-century European custom called souling. On November 2, All Souls Day, early Christians would walk from village to village begging for "soul cakes" made out of square pieces of bread with currants. The more soul cakes the beggars would receive, the more prayers they would promise to say on behalf of the dead relatives of the donors. At the time, it was believed that the dead remained in limbo for a time after death, and that prayer, even by strangers, could expedite a soul's passage to heaven.

Bobbing for Apples:

When the Celts were absorbed by the Roman Empire, many rituals of Roman origin began. Among them was the worship of Pomona, goddess of the harvest, often portrayed sitting on a basket of fruits and flowers. Apples were the sacred fruit of the goddess, and many games of divination involving them entered the Samhain customs.


The Witch's Broomstick:

The witch is a central symbol of Halloween. The name comes from the Saxon wica, meaning wise one. When setting out for a Sabbath, witches rubbed a sacred ointment onto their skin. This gave them a feeling of flying, and if they had been fasting they felt even giddier. Some witches rode on horseback, but poor witches went on foot and carried a broom or a pole to aid in vaulting over streams. In England when new witches were initiated they were often blindfolded, smeared with flying ointment and placed on a broomstick. The ointment would confuse the mind, speed up the pulse and numb the feet. When they were told "You are flying over land and sea," the witch took their word for it.



Irish children used to carve out potatoes or turnips and light them for their Halloween gatherings. They commemorated Jack, a shifty Irish villain so wicked that neither God nor the Devil wanted him. Rejected by both the sacred and profane, he wandered the world endlessly looking for a place to rest, his only warmth a glittering candle in a rotten turnip. Read about Jack in the 'Legend of the Jack-O-Lantern' short story.


Did You Know...

• The Irish Potato Famine (1845-50) prompted over 700,000 people to immigrate to the Americas. These immigrants brought with them their traditions of Halloween and Jack o'Lanterns, but turnips were not as readily available as back home. They found the American pumpkin to be a more than an adequate replacement. Today, the carved pumpkin is perhaps the most famous icon of the holiday.

• アイルランドのジャガイモ飢饉(1845-50)は70万人以上のアイルランド人のアメリカへの移民を誘発しました。この移民達はハロウィーンとジャックオーランタンの伝統を(アメリカ)へ持ち込みましたがカブラは故郷での様に簡単に手に入りませんでした。彼等はアメリカのパンプキンが満足できる以上の代替物である事を発見しました。今ではレリーフされたパンプキンは最も有名な祝日のアイコン(イコン)になっています。

Ejnews: もういーくつねるーとハロウィーン~!其の4日後に大統領選挙。アメリカ経済はブッシュチェイニー政権の素晴らしい指導力が功を奏し、サブプライム住宅問題が発端の世界を巻き込んだ金融危機に陥り、其れに加えて金融機関だけで無くGM,クライスラー等の企業の経営難。ニュースを読むのが一寸厭になる此の頃です。





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ヘッドライン Head Lines

Local and national outbreak of grave robbing

By Nicholas J.C. Pistor

Grave robbing has become an above-ground affair.

 Gone are the days when enterprising thieves would dig up an old grave and pillage for gold teeth and rings. Today, it's mostly the bronze markers and flower vases that draw their attention.

Rising scrap metal prices, coupled with the lagging economy, have triggered a string of cemetery thefts both locally and across the nation.

"I can't think of anything lower," said David Evans, general manager for Valhalla Gardens of Memory in Belleville. "Nothing's worse than stealing from the dead."

“これ以上低級なのは考えられないよ”とベルビルのヴァルハラ霊園の総支配人デイヴィッド エヴァンズ氏は言っています。“死者から盗む事以上悪い事はありません。”


Mandela taken off US terror list

BBC News

US President George W Bush has signed a bill removing Nelson Mandela and South African leaders from the US terror watch list, officials say.

合衆国大統領ジョージ W ブッシュはネルソン マンデラと南アフリカの指導者達を合衆国テロ監視リストから除外する法令に署名をしたと政府関係者は述べた。

Ejnews:   今日は見出し、ヘッドラインです。1番目の記事に付いては日本でも電線、工事用鉄板等が盗まれているそうですから、何処でも起こりそうな話ですが、2番目の記事には一寸憤慨しませんか?マンデラ氏が南アフリカの大統領になったのは1994年だったでしょう!今まで彼はアメリカに来るとき毎回特別ビザの要請をしないとアメリカに入国出来なかったそうです。イスラエルとコロンビアこの2つの世界で最も、殺人的、差別的、破壊的、暴力で弱者を支配する国の政府に、アメリカは経済援助として最大額の資金をアメリカ人の税金から与えています。反対にネルソン マンデラ氏の様に自由平等の為に活躍する人々はテロリストとして犯罪者扱いするのです。然し、彼が大統領になってから14年も待たないといけないのでしょうか!?
 この外にも、sundown townサンダウン タウンと言う習慣が1970年代頃まで存在していて(此れはアメリカの特に北部リンカーンの内戦で奴隷解放側だった地域に多かったのですが、勝利した側だったので法律で余規制されなかった為)サンダウン タウンと呼ばれる町は日暮れ後は黒人は街から出て行かなければならないと言う町の事でした。若し黒人が町の中に居ると罵倒される事は勿論、リンチの対象になったそうです。内戦後、黒人と同じ町に居住するのを嫌った白人は、至る所で町から黒人を追い出してしまったのです。この様な町では見張り台があり黒人が町に接近すると鐘や笛で住民に知らせたと言う事もあったようです。 カリフォルニアのホーソンHawthorne, Californiaと言う町の1930年の記録では "Nigger, Don't Let The Sun Set On YOU In Hawthorne" “黒ンボ!ホーソンじゃお前が居る内は日を沈ませない方がいいぜ!”とでも訳した方が良い看板が町の入り口に架かっていたそうです。(ホーソンはロサンジェルスの南にある今は市に成っている地域で、現在ではサンダウン タウンの面影は全くありません)このサンダウン タウンと呼ばれる町は黒人だけでなく有色人種全般に対しての差別行動でした。本田自動車がインデアナ州グリーンズバーグと言う元サンダウンタウンだった町に工場建設を決定した時に、町の歴史を知らなかったのでしょう、グリーンズバーグの事を“傑出した住民による地域社会” "outstanding community of people." と褒め称えたそうです。サンダウンタウンは1960年代の黒人市民権運動で人種差別が違法になった事(Civil Rights Act of 1968市民権条令1968年)でサンダウンタウンとしての表面的な差別は無くなって行く事になったのですが、未だ半世紀も経ってない訳ですからホンダ自動車がグリーンズバーグ市を褒めた時に、アメリカの黒人市民はどの様に本田自動車の発言を捉えたのでしょうか?

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独立記念日、Independence Day 、the Fourth of July

Independence Day (United States)
独立記念日。the Fourth of July

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the United States, Independence Day commonly known as the Fourth of July is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Congress approved the wording of the Declaration on July 4 and then sent it to the printer. Whether John Hancock, as the elected President of the Second Continental Congress, or anyone else signed the document that day is unknown, because that document has been lost — presumably destroyed in the printing process.[1] On August 2 in the following month, an engrossed document[2] was signed by Hancock and other delegates.

合衆国では、独立記念日、大英帝国からの独立を宣言した1776年7月4日の独立宣言の採択を記念している、一般的にザ フォース オブ ジュライとして知られていている連邦政府の制定した休日です。議会は宣言の用語を7月4日に承認し印刷所に送った。第2回大陸議会で選出された大統領、ジョンハンコックが、若しくは、他の誰かが其の日ドキュメントに著名したのかは不明である。なぜなら其の(オリジナル)ドキュメントは失われたからである。…………印刷過程で破れたのだろう。翌月8月2日公式のドキュメントはハンコックや他の下院議員によって署名された。

Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States, but is often also viewed as simply a summer festival, apart from its patriotic overtones.


Ejnews: わー!あっと言う間に1年の半分が過ぎ去ってしまった。もう独立記念日!又、何もせずこの1年も過ぎ去ってしまうのだろうか?
処で、(もう歳だから落ち込んでいる時間は37秒位しか無いのです。)合衆国の独立の始まりは、あの有名な“ボストン ティー パーティー”だと歴史の時間に習いましたよね!?でも如何して当時のボストンの英国人がアメリカ原住民に変装して御茶をボストン湾に投げ込んだのでしょう?歴史の時間を覚えている人居ますか???長い話を短くすると、フランスと植民地、世界市場の覇権を争っていた英国は物凄い借金を英国とオランダの銀行からして7年戦争に勝利したのですが、借金の返済をするために、北米植民地の色々な税金を引き上げたのです。英国政府としては植民地で商売をしている英国植民地住民の市場を確保する為に戦争をしたのだから、北米の植民地に住む英国国民は戦争の借金返済のためモット税を払うのは当然だ(砂糖、タバコ、塩、ビール、蒸留酒に対しての税。酒の税金を増やすのは間違いだったね!誰だって反乱を起すよね。)と言った考えだったのでしょう。北米植民地住人は其の様には当然考えなかったのです。不満が増えていきます。ニューヨークがニュー アムステルダムと言われていた当時ニュー アムステルダムのオランダ人達は御茶を当時の英国全土で消費されていた以上に飲んでいた位、北米には御茶好きの伝統があったのです。北米が英国領になってからも御茶の消費は増え続け英国政府に税金を払わない御茶の輸入が頻繁に北米人によってなされていました。(税金を払わない輸入?密輸入とも呼ばれています。フーム!殆どの国で重罪です。)合衆国独立宣言に署名したジョン ハンコック、サミュエル アダムス、達も其の税金を払わない御茶の輸入業をしていました。其れだけではなく、ジョン ハンコックはフランスの植民地からモラセス(砂糖になる前の液体、此れからラム酒なんか出来るんじゃないの!?)の税金を払わない輸入もしていたのです。密輸業者とも呼ばれます。其処に、経済的に逼迫していた、東インド会社と歴史の古いジョンカンパニーが合併し、アジアからの御茶の輸出を税金を払わないでしても良いという認可を英国政府から受けたのです。困ったのは御茶の密輸で利益を得ていた北米の商人達です。あの強大なジョン カンパニーと東インド会社が統合し、然も彼らはお茶の輸出に税金を払う必要が無いとなると、北米での御茶の密輸業者は商売が成り立たなくなるのです。フーム!此処まで言うと、如何して御茶がアメリカ合衆国の独立運動の契機になったか御分かりになりますか?新しく台頭してくる地方勢力と既成勢力の争いですよね。つまり、自由平等、中央政府政治参政権だけではなく、利益の自由平等と言う事かな?この利益を得ている人々は大衆ではないよね!アメリカ独立宣言当時は、地主、密輸業者、等の地方ブルジョアですよね。
 独立後何が起こったかと言うと、独立以前より税金は高くなり、独立戦争の英雄達も税金が払えず僅かながらの土地を手放さなくてはならなくなり、新たな反乱が起こりました。此れはDaniel ShaysのShay’s Rebellion“シェイの反乱”に代表されています。彼はmarquis de La Fayette有名なラファイエットから戦功の為に授与された剣も借金の為に売らなくてはならない程困窮していたのです。自由平等の独立戦争後、アメリカの原住民は徐々に母国を失い荒地の居留地区に閉じ込められ、黒人奴隷制度はリンカーンの内戦まで続き、その後も黒人、東洋人、有色人種に対しての人種差別は今でも続いています。イラクは石油企業を国営にした事が侵略される原因となりましたが、イラク国民がアングロ-サクソンの様な白人だったらアメリカは侵略したでしょうか?独立記念日おめでとう。アメリカ!誕生日おめでとう!

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日本では端午の節句、カリフォルニアではシンコ デ マヨ。

Cinco de Mayo シンコ デ マヨ 5月5日
シンコ デ マヨはスペイン語で"5月5日"と言う意味です。

Cinco de Mayo is a date of great importance for the Mexican and Chicano communities. It marks the victory of the Mexican Army over the French at the Battle of Puebla. Although the Mexican army was eventually defeated, the "Batalla de Puebla" came to represent a symbol of Mexican unity and patriotism. With this victory, Mexico demonstrated to the world that Mexico and all of Latin America were willing to defend themselves of any foreign intervention. Especially those from imperialist states bent on world conquest.

 シンコ デ マヨCinco de mayoはメキシコ人社会とチカノ社会では重要な意味を持つ日です。此れはメキシコ軍がフランス軍をプエブラの戦いで破った日なのです。最終的にはメキシコ軍は敗れたのですが、Batalla de Pueblaはメキシコの統一と愛国心の象徴を代表する物となったのです。

chicano チカノ メキシコ系アメリカ人

Cinco de Mayo's history has its roots in the French Occupation of Mexico. The French occupation took shape in the aftermath of the Mexican-American War of 1846-48. With this war, Mexico entered a period of national crisis during the 1850's. Years of not only fighting the Americans but also a Civil War, had left Mexico devastated and bankrupt. On July 17, 1861, President Benito Juarez issued a moratorium in which all foreign debt payments would be suspended for a brief period of two years, with the promise that after this period, payments would resume.


The English, Spanish and French refused to allow president Juarez to do this, and instead decided to invade Mexico and get payments by whatever means necessary. The Spanish and English eventually withdrew, but the French refused to leave. Their intention was to create an Empire in Mexico under Napoleon III. Some have argue that the true French occupation was a response to growing American power and to the Monroe Doctrine (America for the Americans). Napoleon III believed that if the United States was allowed to prosper indiscriminately, it would eventually become a power in and of itself.


In 1862, the French army began its advance. Under General Ignacio Zaragoza, 5,000 ill-equipped Mestizo and Zapotec Indians defeated the French army in what came to be known as the "Batalla de Puebla" on the fifth of May.

 1862年、フランス軍は進軍を始め、5月5日、イグナシオ ザラゴサ将軍以下5000人の兵器もろくに持たないメスティソそして ザポテック インデアン達が、現在“バタリャ デ プエブラ”として知られている戦いで勝利を収めたのです。

Batalla dePuebla バタリャ デ プエブラ  “プエブラの戦い”英語でBattle of Puebla.プエブラ市で戦われたのでこの名が付いた。

In the United States, the "Batalla de Puebla" came to be known as simply "5 de Mayo" and unfortunately, many people wrongly equate it with Mexican Independence which was on September 16, 1810, nearly a fifty year difference. Over, the years Cinco de Mayo has become very commercialized and many people see this holiday as a time for fun and dance. Oddly enough, Cinco de Mayo has become more of Chicano holiday than a Mexican one. Cinco de Mayo is celebrated on a much larger scale here in the United States than it is in Mexico. People of Mexican descent in the United States celebrate this significant day by having parades, mariachi music, folklorico dancing and other types of festive activities.

 アメリカ合衆国では“バタリャ デ プエブラ”は唯、単に“シンコ デ マヨ”として知られるようになりましたが、残念ながら多くの人々は殆ど50年も離れている、1810年9月16日のメキシコ独立記念日と同じだと理解している様です。月日が経つうちにシンコ デ マヨはコマーシャル化され、多くの人々はこの祝日をダンスと楽しく過ごす日と見る様うになりました。不思議な事にシンコデマヨはメキシコの祝日と言うよりもチカノの祝日になってきました。シンコデマヨはアメリカ合衆国での方が本国メキシコよりも大々的にお祝いされています。メキシコ人の子孫達はパレード、マリアッチ音楽、民族ダンスや他の陽気な行事でこの重要な日をお祝いします。

ejnews: と言う事です。 ¡VIva Mexico! ビバ メヒコ!Long live Mexico!メキシコ万歳!
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May Day メーデー(メイ デー)

May Day メーデー (メイ デー)

From Wikipedia,  ウィキペディアから


May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several public holidays in many countries.[1] May Day is cynonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour Day, which celebrates the social and economic achievements of the labor movement. As a day of celebration, however, the holiday has ancient origins and can relate to many customs that have survived into modern times. Many of these customs are due to May Day being a cross-quarter day, meaning that it falls approximately halfway between a solstice and an equinox.

 メーデーは5月1日に当たり、各国では種々の公共の祝日とされています。メーデーは労働運動が社会的、経済的に達成した成果を祝うInternational Workers' Day, “国際労働者の日”若しくは、Labour Day,“労働の日”と同義語です。祝日としては起源が古く、現代まで生き残った多くの風習と関係があります。この様な多くの風習はメーデーがcross-quarter day,クロス クォター デーと言う、夏冬至(この場合夏至)と秋春分の日(此処では春分の日)の約中間に当たる日に由来しています。

Synonymous 同義語
The summer solstice 夏至
The winter solstice 冬至
Autumnal equinox 春分の日
Vernal(spring) equinox 秋分の日
approximately 約

International Workers' Day 国際労働者の日

May Day also refers to various labor celebrations conducted on May 1 that commemorate the fight for the eight hour day. May Day in this regard is called International Workers' Day, or Labour Day, and the choice of the 1st of May is a commemoration by the Second International for the working Americans involved in the 1886 Haymarket affair in Chicago, Illinois. As the culmination of three days of labor unrest in the United States, the Haymarket incident was a source of outrage and admiration from people around the globe. In countries other than the United States and Canada, residents sought to make May Day an official holiday and their efforts largely succeeded. For this reason, in most of the world today, May Day has become an international celebration of the social and economic achievements of the labor movement. In some European countries, working people continue to use May Day parades as an opportunity to show disapproval with the government or to protest cuts in social programs. Although May Day had its origins in the United States, the U.S. Congress designated May 1 as Loyalty Day in 1958 due to the day's appropriation by the Soviet Union.[4] Alternatively, Labor Day traditionally occurs sometime in September in the United States. However some conservative countries like Kuwait do not celebrate May day

 メーデーは又、1日8時間(労働時間)を巡っての戦いを記念して5月1日に行われる種々の労働の御祝いを示してています。この意味でメーデーは“国際労働者の日”若しくは“労働の日”と呼ばれていて、最初のメーデーが5月1日がメーデーに選ばれた理由は、第2回インターナショナルで、1886年のアメリカ、イリノイ州、シカゴのヘイマーケットアフェアーに参加した労働者を祝った事によるものです。アメリカでの3日間の労働争議の頂点として、ヘイマーケット事件は全世界の人々の怒りと賞賛の的となっています。アメリカ、カナダ以外の国々では、国民のメーデーを国家の祭日にする努力は、大部分の国々で成功しています。この理由で大部分の国際社会ではメーデーは労働運動の社会的、経済的達成を祝う日となっています。幾つかのヨーロッパの国々では、労働者によって、メーデーパレードは今でも政府に対する反対の意思表示、又、国家のサーヴィスの削減に対する反対の意思表示の為の手段になっています。メーデーの起源はアメリカにありながらも、メーデーのソ連による専有が原因で、米議会により1958年に5月1日はLoyalty Day“忠誠の日”と制定されています。代わってアメリカでは伝統的に“労働の日”は9月のある日に行われます。然しながら、クエートの様な保守的な国ではメーデーは祝われていません。

commemorate 記念する、祭る、祝う、
culmination 頂点

outrage  怒り

admiration 賞賛

ejnews: アメリカはソ連が大々的にメーデーを祝い、世界的にソ連のメーデーは有名になったので、冷戦下で、共産主義国家のボスであったソ連と同じ祝日を同じ日に祝いたくなかったのでしょう。(アメリカの支配階級は社会主義、共産主義、アナキズム、の様な社会を平等にしようと言う思想はお好きじゃないみたいです。でも道教Taoismは名前も知らないので安全です。支配階級の話です。)ブッシュ政権下でフランス政府がイラク戦争に反対していた時、共和党がフレンチ フライズFrench friesをフリーダム フライズFreedom fries(フライドポテトの事ですが、 fried potatosは和製英語)と名前を変えて呼ぼうとしたり、国の大きさにしては小さい事が気になる御国柄の様です。

頑張れ!Comrades ! 同志達! ところで、同志達コメントあればして下さるか!


Debout, les damnés de la terre
Debout, les forçats de la faim!
La raison tonne en son cratère
C'est l'éruption de la fin.
Du passé faisons table rase
Foules, esclaves, debout, debout
Le monde va changer de base
Nous ne sommes rien, soyons tout!

C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain

Il n'est pas de sauveurs suprêmes
Ni Dieu, ni César, ni tribun,
Producteurs, sauvons-nous nous-mêmes
Décrétons le salut commun
Pour que le voleur rende gorge
Pour tirer l'esprit du cachot
Soufflons nous-mêmes notre forge
Battons le fer quand il est chaud.

C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain

L'état comprime et la loi triche
L'impôt saigne le malheureux
Nul devoir ne s'impose au riche
Le droit du pauvre est un mot creux
C'est assez, languir en tutelle
L'égalité veut d'autres lois
Pas de droits sans devoirs dit-elle
Egaux, pas de devoirs sans droits.

C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain

Hideux dans leur apothéose
Les rois de la mine et du rail
Ont-ils jamais fait autre chose
Que dévaliser le travail
Dans les coffres-forts de la bande
Ce qu'il a crée s'est fondu
En décrétant qu'on le lui rende
Le peuple ne veut que son dû.

C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain

Les rois nous saoulaient de fumées
Paix entre nous, guerre aux tyrans
Appliquons la grève aux armées
Crosse en l'air, et rompons les rangs
S'ils s'obstinent, ces cannibales
A faire de nous des héros
Ils sauront bientôt que nos balles
Sont pour nos propres généraux.

C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain

Ouvriers, paysans, nous sommes
Le grand parti des travailleurs
La terre n'appartient qu'aux hommes
L'oisif ira loger ailleurs
Combien, de nos chairs se repaissent
Mais si les corbeaux, les vautours
Un de ces matins disparaissent
Le soleil brillera toujours.

C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
C'est la lutte finale
Groupons-nous, et demain
Sera le genre humain
(Contributed by Riccardo Venturi)

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